Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
and process; the condyles and angles of the 
jaw, its alveolar border and its base, which 
terminates it below, and near which, at the 
chin, are seen the depressions for the digastric 
The latei'al or zygomatic surfaces on each 
side are bounded above by the temporal border 
of the malar bone and by the zygomatic arch ; 
in front by a line extended vertically from the 
external angular process of the frontal bone to 
the base of the lower jaw, and behind and 
below by the free border of the body and ramus 
of the inferior maxilla. 
This region presents a superficial and a deep 
portion : the former comprises the lateral aspect 
of the malar bone, the zygomatic arch, and 
the external surface of the ramus of the jaw. 
On it we may remark, proceeding from above 
downwards, the temporal border of the malar 
bone and zygoma, forming the outer boundary 
of the temporal fossa; the external malar holes, 
the zygoma and its suture, which unites the 
malar and temporal bones ; the inferior or 
masseteric border of the zygoma, the sigmoid 
notch of the lower jaw and the outer surface of 
its ramus, coronoid and condyloid processes 
and angle. The deeper division of this region 
presents the large zygomatic fossa, and is 
situated internal to the ramus of the jaw, which 
forms its outer boundary, and which must be 
removed to expose it completely : this done, 
the fossa is brought into view, bounded in 
front by the posterior surface of the upper jaw 
and part of the malar bone ; superiorly by the 
inferior surface of the great wing of the sphe¬ 
noid below its temporal ridge ; at this part of 
the fossa are seen the spheno-temporal suture, 
the spinous process, and the spinous and oval 
foramina of the sphenoid bone. The narrow 
inner boundary is formed by the external ptery¬ 
goid plate of the sphenoid ; behind and below 
the fossa is open. At the bottom of the zygo¬ 
matic fossa is situated the pterygo-maxillary 
fissure, forming the external orifice of the 
spheno-maxillary fossa, which is a cavity 
situated between the tuberosity of the upper 
jaw in front, and the pterygoid process and 
palate bone behind : in this fossa are five holes, 
viz. three which open into it from behind, the 
foramen rotundum, the vidian or pterygoid, 
and the pterygo-palatine ; one opening inter¬ 
nally at the upper part; the spheno-palatine; 
one below, the upper orifice of the posterior 
palatine canal. The zygomatic fossa presents 
also at its upper and anterior part, the spheno¬ 
maxillary fissure, which is directed from within 
outwards and forwards, and is formed inter¬ 
nally by the orbitar processes of the palate and 
upper maxillary bones, externally by the orbitar 
plate of the sphenoid, and at its outer extremity, 
which is large, by the malar bone ; it forms a 
communication between the orbit and the zygo¬ 
matic fossa. Its inner end joins the sphenoidal 
and the pterygo-maxillary fissures, with the 
former of which it forms an acute, and with 
the latter, a right angle : thus these three 
fissures may be considered as branching from 
a common centre at the back of the orbit; they 
give passage to a number of vessels and nerves, 
and establish communications between the cavi¬ 
ties of the face and cranium. 
The superior or cranial region is very irregu¬ 
lar, and is immoveably united to the cranium. 
It presents along the median line, from before 
backwards, the articulation of the nasal bone, 
with the nasal spine of the frontal, the union 
of this spine with the perpendicular plate of 
the ethmoid, the articulation of this plate with 
the vomer, the articulation of the vomer with 
the sphenoid. 
Along the sides, from within outwards, are 
seen the arched roof of the nasal fossae formed 
in front of the nasal bones, in the middle by 
the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, and behind 
by the body of the sphenoid. External to these 
parts are found the base of the pterygoid process, 
the articulation of the palate with the body of 
the sphenoid bone, the pterygo-palatine canal, 
the spheno-palatine foramen ; next the spongy 
masses of the ethmoid united behind with the 
sphenoid, and anteriorly with the os frontis ; 
and still more forwards are seen the articula¬ 
tions of this bone with the lachrymal, upper 
maxillary, and nasal. To the outer side of 
these articulations is the triangular roof of the 
orbit, limited externally by the sphenoid and 
malar bones and by the sphenoidal fissure. 
Next may be observed the orbitar plates of the 
sphenoid, forming the greater part of the outer 
wall of the orbit, and lastly the zygoma. The 
inner border of the orbitar plate of the frontal 
bone presents the fronto-lachrymal and the 
frontal-ethmoidal sutures ; the outer border the 
spheno-frontal and fronto-jugal sutures. 
The internal structure of the face appears 
to be very complex, presenting several cavities 
and divisions which give it at the same time 
strength and lightness. The arrangement of 
these parts may be understood by observing, 
1. the perpendicular septum formed by the 
ethmoid and vomer, which divides the upper 
part of the face into two equal halves; 2. in 
each half three horizontal divisions, viz. an 
upper or frontal, which separates the cranium 
from the orbit ; a middle or maxillary, placed 
between the orbit and the cavity of the nose, 
and an inferior or palatine situated between the 
nose and mouth; 3. three outer divisions, viz. 
an upper or spheno-jugal, forming the outer 
wall of the orbit, and separating that cavity 
from the temporal fossa ; a middle, formed by 
the maxillary tuberosity which separates the 
cavity of the nose from the spheno-maxillary 
and zygomatic fossæ ; an inferior, formed by 
the ramus of the jaw; 4. above and at the 
centre the ethmoid and lachrymal bones sepa¬ 
rate the orbits from each other and from the 
cavities of the nose. 
The principal cavities of the face are the 
orbits, the nasal fossæ, and the mouth; and 
with these all the rest are more or less con¬ 
nected. These cavities will be described under 
the several articles, Orbit, Nose, Mouth. 
Mechanism of the face.—The face forms a 
structure which combines both strength and 
lightness ; the former quality is owing to the 
arched form of its exterior and to the strong 
pillars of supports (to be presently described)


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