Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
only this portion of the muscle which separates 
this part of the scapula from the common inte¬ 
guments, and to this superficial position is at¬ 
tributed the more frequent occurrence of frac¬ 
tures from direct violence in this than in any 
other portion of the bone. 
The angle between the cervical and axillary 
borders is truncated, and presents many points 
of great interest. We here notice an articular 
concavity, destined to contribute to the for¬ 
mation of the shoulder-joint, commonly known 
under the name of the glenoid cavity, (sinus 
articuluris.) This cavity, which is a very 
superficial one, is oval; the long axis of the 
oval being vertical in its direction, the acute 
extremity of the oval is situated superiorly, 
and here the edge of the bone is cut and 
rounded off towards the posterior part, where 
is inserted the tendon of the biceps. The 
cavity is surrounded by a thick lip of bone, 
to which in the recent state the fibro-cartilage, 
called glenoid ligament, is applied. At the 
internal or anterior part of this border, is a 
notch for the passage of the tendon of the sub- 
scapularis muscle. The aspect of the glenoid 
cavity when the scapula is quiescent is outwards 
and slightly upwards and forwards. This cavity 
is connected with the rest of the bone by a thick 
but contracted portion denominated the neck 
of the scapula. The neck of the scapula is 
surmounted by a remarkable curved process, 
called the coracoid process, (y.ofa.%, corvus.) 
This process, well compared to a semiflexed 
finger, is directed forwards and outwards, it is 
connected to the scapula by a thick portion, 
which seems to arise by two roots, one posterior, 
thick and rough, lying immediately in front 
of the notch in the cervical border, the other 
anterior and thin, and connected with the apex 
of the glenoid cavity. The concave surface 
of the coracoid process is directed downwards 
and outwards, and in the recent state projects 
over the upper and internal part of the shoul¬ 
der-joint : its convex surface is rough, and has 
inserted into it the ligaments by which the 
clavicle is tied to it. The coracoid process 
affords attachment by its internal edge to the 
pectoralis minor muscle; to its outer edge is 
affixed the ligament which, with the acromion 
process, completes the osseo-ligamentous arch 
over the shoulder-joint, and by its summit it 
gives insertion to the short head of the biceps 
and to the coraco-brachialis. 
It remains only to examine the surfaces of 
this bone. The anterior surface forms in the 
greatest part of its extent a shallow fossa, fossa 
subscapularis, which is limited above and be¬ 
hind by the superior and posterior margins of 
the bone, and in front by a smooth and rounded 
ridge, which extends from the glenoid cavity 
to the inferior angle. This fossa is frequently 
intersected in various directions by bony ridges. 
Cruveilhier remarks, that in a well-formed per¬ 
son, this surface ought to be exactly adapted 
to the thorax ; but when the chest is contracted, 
as in phthisical patients, the scapula not par¬ 
ticipating to a proportionate extent in the con¬ 
traction, there follows such a change of re¬ 
lation that the scapulae become very prominent 
behind, and are in some degree detached from 
the ribs like wings, whence the expression 
scapula ulata, applied to the projection of the 
shoulders in phthisical patients. The whole 
fossa has lodged in and inserted into it the 
subscapularis muscle, whence its name. At 
the superior posterior angle and the inferior 
one, are rough surfaces into which are inserted 
the superior and inferior fibres of the serratus 
magnus muscle. 
The posterior surface is remarkable for its 
division into two portions by a large process 
which projects from it nearly horizontally back¬ 
wards and slightly upwards. This process, called 
the spine of the scapula, is fixed to the bone 
at the line of union of its superior and mid¬ 
dle thirds; it commences at the triangular 
surface already noticed at the termination of 
the superior fourth of the vertebral border of 
the scapula, thence it proceeds outwards, in¬ 
clining a little upwards, and just where the 
neck of the scapula is united with the rest 
of the bone, this spine ceases to be connected 
with the scapula, and is continued outwards in 
a slightly arched form, as a broad and flattened 
process, denominated the acromion process, 
(axçoç, summits, ug.oq, humerus.') The spine 
presents posteriorly a thick and rough edge, 
which by its superior border gives attachment 
to the trapezius muscle, and by its inferior to 
the deltoid, the intervening space being covered 
by the aponeurotic expansion which connects 
the muscles last-named. The superior surface 
of the spine looks nearly directly upwards ; it 
is concave, and contributes to form the fossa 
supra-spinata. The inferior surface, on the 
other hand, forming part of the fossa supra- 
spinata, is convex anteriorly and slightly con¬ 
cave posteriorly, and looks downwards and 
backwards ; on each surface we observe a large 
nutritious foramen. The posterior edge of the 
spine is quite subcutaneous, and the physician 
often finds it desirable to practise percussion 
upon it. 
Above the spine of the scapula is the fossa 
supra-spinata, which lodges the muscle of the 
same name, formed in front by the scapula, 
behind by the spine, both surfaces being 
slightly concave. Below the spine is the fossa 
supra-spinata much larger than the preceding, 
slightly convex, except towards its anterior 
part. This fossa is formed by the scapula 
below and the inferior surface of the spine 
above ; it is limited in front by a ridge which 
proceeds downwards and backwards, from the 
glenoid cavity to the inferior angle, and bounds 
behind a surface which gives attachment to 
the teres major and minor muscles. Into this 
ridge itself is inserted a fibrous fascia, which 
separates the attachment of the last-named 
muscles from the fossa infra-spinata and the 
insertion of the muscle of the same name. The 
two fossse, thus separated by the spine, com¬ 
municate through a channel formed on the 
posterior part of the neck of the scapula and 
bounded behind by the spine; through this 
channel pass the arterial and nervous ramifica¬ 
tions from the superior to the inferior fossa. 
The acromion process is evidently continu-


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