Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
form substances are elongated bodies of a 
moderately firm, solid, homogeneous texture, 
varying in length from four to eight inches ; 
attenuated at both extremities; having the 
diameter of a line half-way between the ex¬ 
tremities and the middle part, where the body 
is contracted and abruptly bent upon itself. 
Some are irregularly trigonal, others tetragonal. 
In the three-sided specimens one surface is 
broad, convex, and smooth ; the other two are 
narrow and concave, and separated by a nar¬ 
row longitudinal groove, in which is sometimes 
lodged a filamentary brown concretion. In 
the tetragonal portions the broad smooth sur¬ 
face is divided into two parts by the rising of 
the middle part of the convexity into an angle. 
The most remarkable appearance in these am¬ 
biguous productions is the beautiful crenation 
of one of the angles or ridges between the 
convex and concave facet; which, from its 
regularity and constancy, can hardly be ac¬ 
counted for on the theory of their nature and 
origin suggested by Rudolphi : 4 lymphamque 
in canalibus fistulosis coactam passimque com- 
pressam filum inæquale efformare crediderim.’* 
On the other hand it is equally difficult to form 
any satisfactory notion of these substances 
as organized bodies growing by an inherent 
and independent vitality. We have not been 
able to observe a single example in which the 
substance had both extremities well defined 
and unbroken ; these, on the contrary, are 
flattened, membranous, and more or less jagged 
and irregular. They present no trace of ali¬ 
mentary or generative orifices on any part of 
their exterior surface, nor any canals subser¬ 
vient to those functions, in the interior paren- 
Fig. 70. 
Spiroptera hominis. (* Natural size.) 
per catheterem ex vesica pauperculae educta, ne- 
quaquam talia habenda sunt. Corpuscula sunt 
plus minus globosa, tertiam lineæ partem diametro 
superantia, duriuscula, forcipi comprraienti reni- 
tentia, dissecta solida visa, quommus pro hydatulis 
baberi possint, quales primo suspicatus sum. Con- 
crementæ sunt lymphatica in vesica imorbosa ex 
humoribus alienatis ibidem secretis, simili torsan 
modo acarcnulæ ex lotio præcipitata. —Rudolptu, 
Synops. Entos. p. 251. 
* Ibid. p. 252. 
chyma. If subsequent observations on re¬ 
cently expelled specimens of these most 
curious and interesting productions should, 
however, establish their claims to be regarded 
as Entozoa, they will probably rank as a sim¬ 
ple form of Sterelmintha.* 
The existence of the Spiroptera Hominis is 
founded on the observation of substances very 
different from the preceding productions. The 
specimens so called were transmitted to Ru- 
dolphi, in a separate phial, at the same time 
with the ova and larger parenchymatous bodies 
above described, and are presumed to have 
been expelled from the same female under the 
same circumstances. They consisted of six 
small Nematoid worms of different sexes; 
the males (fig. 70*) were eight, the females ten 
lines in length, slender, white, highly elastic. 
The head (a, fig. 70) truncated, and with 
one or two papillae ; the mouth orbicular, the 
body attenuated at both extremities, but espe¬ 
cially anteriorly. The tail in the female 
thicker, and with a short obtuse apex ; that of 
the male more slender, and emitting a small 
mesial tubulus (c), probably the sheath of the 
penis: a dermal aliform production near the 
same extremity determines the reference of this 
Entozoon to the genus Spiroptera. 
There are no specimens of this Entozoon 
among the substances discharged from the 
urethra of the female, whose case is above 
alluded to, which are preserved in the Museum 
of the College of Surgeons. 
The following parasite of the urinary appa¬ 
ratus, concerning which no obscurity or doubt 
prevails, is the Strongylus gigas (fig. 71), the 
giant not only of its genus but of the whole 
class of cavitary worms. This species is de¬ 
veloped in the parenchyma of the kidney 
itself, and occasionally attains the length of 
three feet, with a diameter of half an inch. 
A worm of nearly this magnitude, which oc¬ 
cupied the entire capsule of the left kidney, 
of the parenchyma of which it had occasioned 
the total destruction, is preserved in the collec¬ 
tion of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
The male Strongylus gigas is less than the 
female, and is slightly attenuated at both ex¬ 
tremities. The head (a) is obtuse, the mouth 
orbicular, and surrounded by six hemispherical 
papillae (a); the body is slightly impressed 
with circular striae, and with two longitudinal 
impressions ; the tail is incurved in the male, 
and terminated by a dilated pouch or bursa, from 
the base of which the single intromittent spi- 
culum (6) projects. In the female the caudal 
extremity is less attenuated and straighter, 
with the anus (c) a little below the apex : the 
vulva (d,fig. 95) is situated at a short distance 
from the anterior extremity. 
The Strongylus gigas is not confined to the 
Human Subject, but more frequently infests 
the kidney of the Dog, Wolf, Otter, Raccoon, 
Glutton, Horse, and Bull. It is generally of 
a dark blood-colour, which seems to be owing 
* These bodies are figured in the excellent ac¬ 
count of the present anomalous case by Mr. Law¬ 
rence, in the Medico - Chirurgical Transactions, 
vol. ii. pi. 8, P* 385.


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