Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
Generation, (continued). 
dioecious reproduction, or with distinct in¬ 
dividuals of different sexes. Oviparous 
and viviparous generation, 435 
ovoviparous generation, 435 
varieties in respect to utero-gestation and 
the development of the young, 436 
Marstfpiate generation, 436 
Monotrematous generation, 437 
comparison of animal and vegetable repro¬ 
duction, 437 
synoptical table of the various forms of the 
reproductive process, 438 
III. Reproductive function in man and the higher 
animals : 
1. sketch of this function in man, 438 
organs of reproduction, 438 
puberty, 439 
structural differences of the sexes, 439 
menstruation, 439 
periodical heat in animals, 441 
age at which puberty occurs, 441 
period during which the generative function 
is exercised, 442 
effects of castration, 443 
sexual feeling, 443 
relation of reproduction to the brain, 444 
distinction of species. Mules, 444 
functions of the external organs of repro¬ 
duction, 445 
erection, 445 
IV. Changes consequent on fruitful sexual union: 
1. As regards the female. Conception, 447 
approximation of the fimbriated extremities 
of the Fallopian tubes to the ovary, 447 
changes in the ovaries: bursting of the 
Graafian vesicles, 448 
formation of the corpus luteum, 449 
descent of the ovum. Its structure and 
changes during its passage, 451 
time at which it arrives in the uterus, 453 
changes in the uterus after conception, 454 
irregularities in the descent of the ovum, 
circumstances influencing liability to con¬ 
ception, 456 
signs of recent conception in women, 457 
2. As regards the male, 457 
properties of the seminal fluid, 457 
chemical properties, 458 
spermatic animalcules, 459 
table of their sizes in different animals, 
circumstances upon which the fecundating 
property of the seminal fluid depends, 461 
difference between the fecundated and uuf'e- 
cundated ovum, 462 
is material contact of the semen and ovum 
necessary ? 462 
external and artificial fecundation, 462 
course of the seminal fluid within the female 
organs, 464 
nature of the fecundating principle. Hypo¬ 
thesis of an aura, &c. 468 
general conclusions respecting fecundation, 
V. Miscellaneous topics relating to the preceding 
history of generation, 468 
1. superfcetation, 469 
2. influence exerted by parents on the qualities of 
their offspring, 470 
3. number of children and relative proportion of 
the male and female sexes, 478 
table of the proportion of males to females 
born in different countries, 478 
Gland, 480 ’ 
divisions and kinds of glands, 481 
situations, 481 
organization, 481 
minute structure, 481 
excretory ducts, 486 
structure of the secreting canals and excretory 
ducts, 487 
bloodvessels, 487 
arrangement of their minute subdivisions, 488 
lymphatics, 489 
nerves, 489 
interstitial cellular tissue, 489 
investing membrane, 489 
general conclusions regarding the minute struc¬ 
ture of glands, 490 
hypotheses on this subject, 490 
development of glands, 492 
Glosso-pharyngeal nerve, 492 
origin and course, ganglion jugulare, ramus tympa- 
nicus or nerve of Jacobson, &c. 492 
digastric and stylo-hyoid branch, 496 
carotid branches, 496 
pharyngeal branches, 496 
lingual branches, 497 
tonsillitic branches, 497 
physiology of this nerve, 497 
Glutœal Region, (in surgical anatomy,) 500 
Groin, Region of the, (in surgical anatomy,) 503 
Hœmatosine, 503 
Hair. Vide Tegumentary System, 505 
Hand, Bones of the, (human anatomy,) 505 
I. Carpus, 505 
os naviculare, 505 
os lunare, 505 
os cunéiforme, 505 
os pisiforme, 505 
os trapezium, 506 
os trapezoides, 506 
os magnum, 506 
os unciforme, 506 
structure and development of the bones of carpus, 
II. Metacarpus : 
first, second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpal 
bones, 507 
structure and development of the metacarpus. 
IIL Fingers, 507 
metacarpal, middle, and ungual phalanges, 507 
structure and development, 507 
joints of the hand : 
joints of the carpus, 508 
articulation of the two rows of carpal bones to 
each other, 508 
motions of the carpal articulations, 503 
articulation of the pisiform bone, 508 
carpo-metacarpal joints, 509 
motions of the carpo-metacarpal joints, 509 
joints of the fingers : 
metacarpo-phalangeal joints, 510 
phalangeal joints, 510 
motions of the joints of the fingers, 510 
Hand, Abnormal Conditions of the, 510 
I, As results of accidents, 510 
luxations and fractures, 510 
luxation of the bones of the carpus, 510 
luxation of the bones of the metacarpus, 511 
luxation of the metacarpal bone of the thumb, 
luxation of the phalanges of the fingers, 511 
first phalanx of the thumb from 
the metacarpal bone, 511 
anatomical characters of this accident, 512 
tt °f the second and third phalanges, 514 
II. Diseased conditions : 
spina ventosa, case of, 514 
strumous osteitis, 516 
malignant tumours, 516 
abnormal conditions of the fingers, the result of 
accidents, and morbid affections of one or 
more of their constituent structures, 517 
contraction of the fingers from disease of 
the palmar fascia, 517 
anchylosis of the joints of the phalanges, 
„ V1 Gongenital malformations of the hand, 519 
Hand, Muscles of the, (human anatomy,) 519 
I. Muscles of the palm : 
a. muscles of the external palmar region, 519 
abductor pollicis, 519 
relations, 519 
flexor ossis metacarpi s. opponens pollicis, 519 
relations, 520 
flexor brevis pollicis, 520 
relations, 520 
adductor pollicis, 520 
relations, 520 
b. muscles of the internal palmar region, 520 
palmaris brevis, 520 
relations, 520 
abductor minimi digiti, 520 
relations, use, 520 
flexor brevis minimi digiti, 521 
relations, 521 
adductor ossis metacarpi s, opponens minimi 
digiti, 521 
relations, 521 
c. muscles of the middle palmar region, 521 
lumbncales, 521 
relations and uses, 521 
interossei interni digitorum, 521 
relations, use, 521 
II. Muscles of the dorsum : 
interossei externi, 591 
relations, uses, 522 
motions of the hand and its parts, 522 
Hand, Regions of the, (surgical anatomy), 523 
I. Palmar region, 523 
skin, 524 
subcutaneous cellular tissue and nerves, 524 
aponeurosis, 524 
anterior annular ligament, 524 
palmar fascia, 525 
vessels and nerves : 
ulnar artery, 525 
radial artery, 526 
veins, lymphatics, nerves, 526 
median nerve, 527


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