Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Person:
Todd, Robert Bentley
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit25760/1006/
998 
INSECTIVORA. 
carpal portion of the hand ; and it is only the 
long sharp nails which extend beyond the skin, 
and are externally visible. 
The position then of the anterior extremity 
of the animal is this : the humerus is so placed 
that the inferior or distal extremity is the most 
raised, so that the fore-arm is kept in a state 
between pronation and supination, the elbow 
raised, the radius and the thumb placed down¬ 
wards, and the palm of the hand directed out¬ 
wards. When to this we add the peculiar 
flexion of the last phalanx of the fingers with 
the enormous nails, we have a fossorial struc¬ 
ture not equalled by any other in the whole 
of the vertebrated animals, and only imitated 
by the no less remarkable anomaly amongst 
insects, the Gryllotalpa or mole-cricket. 
In Chrysochloris the third and fourth fingers 
are united by one large powerful nail, and are 
developed to an extraordinary size (fig. 445), 
Fig. 445. 
the fifth finger being reduced to a minute ru¬ 
diment; and the carpal bones are placed in an 
abrupt curve, so that the outer side of the fifth 
finger approaches the first. The os pisiforme as¬ 
sumes also a peculiar development, being very 
much elongated, rises in the direction of the 
forearm, and is actually articulated with the 
internal condyle of the humerus. 
The pelvis in the Talpidœ and Soricidee is 
extremely long. The ilia are narrow and 
pointed at the anterior part. In the last-named 
family, the pubis and the ischium are especially 
long and narrow. In Chrysochloris, on the 
contrary, the ischium is very broad. 
The femur offers but few and unimportant 
particularities amongst the Insectivora, unless 
it be that there is in the mole and Chrysochloris 
a sort of third trochanter; a process which is also 
found in some of the lower Quadrumana, and 
in some other of the Mammifera. The fibula 
is united to the tibia for nearly the inferior third 
of their length, in the Talpidœ, the Soricidee, 
and the Erinaceadce. In the mole this union 
is to a greater extent than perhaps in any other 
animal of the Mammiferous class. 
The hinder feet in the whole of this order 
are plantigrade. In the mole, as Daubenton 
and Meckel have observed, there is an addi¬ 
tional tarsal bone, to those which are ordinarily 
found. It is of considerable size, and seems to 
answer to the falciform bone of the anterior 
extremities already described. It is of an 
uniform shape, of considerable size, and is arti¬ 
culated between the scaphoid and the first 
cuneiform bone, and extends forwards along 
the first metatarsal. 
II. Muscles.—The extraordinary develope- 
ment of the bones of the anterior extremity in 
the mole, will, of course, be associated with 
a no less remarkable structure in the muscles 
of the same part ; and the known habits of the 
animal will account equally for the necessity 
of such a structure in both. I give a figure 
of the muscles of the anterior extremity and 
of the anterior part of the trunk from Carus. 
(Fig. 446.) 
Fig. 446.
        

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