Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol 1: A-Dea
Todd, Robert Bentley
found below the cartilaginous cranium, situ¬ 
ated in the hepatic cavity, on either side of 
the oesophagus. A single excretory duct is 
continued from each gland, and the two unite 
and form one, as they are passing through the 
cranium. The common duct penetrates the 
lower or central surface of the buccal mass, 
and is continued along the concavity of the 
lower mandible, through the tongue to the 
lower part of the spiny plate, where it termin¬ 
ates. In the Octopus these glands are very 
large, and have a smooth surface ip, fig- 233) ; 
but in many Cephalopods, as in Ocythoè, 
Sepiola, and Rossia, they are relatively smaller, 
and have a granular surface. It is in the genus 
Loligopsis alone that these glands have hither¬ 
to been found wanting. 
With respect to the ultimate structure of the 
salivary glands of the Cephalopoda, Müller^ 
observes that they are not composed of solid 
acini or granules, but of hollow canals or cells. 
Before the description of the abdominal 
viscera is proceeded with, it is necessary to 
make a few observations on their position and 
In the ventricose and short-bodied species 
of Cephalopoda the mantle-sac is almost wholly 
filled with the viscera, but in those of an elon¬ 
gated form they are more or less confined to 
the lower part of the sac, and a vacant space 
intervenes between the visceral mass and the 
opening of the mantle, which is traversed by 
the respiratory currents : the part of the mantle 
unoccupied by the viscera is most remarkable 
for its extent in the genus Loligopsis (fig. 223.) 
If the mantle of~the common Octopus or 
Poulp be laid open longitudinally, and a little 
to one side of the mesial line, a cavity will be 
exposed, separated by the longitudinal muscular 
septum (c, fig.216) from the corresponding one 
of the opposite side ; in these two cavities are 
contained the branchiae (r,fig. 216), the termi¬ 
nations of the oviducts (p), and the pericardial 
apertures (q). Below and behind the branchial 
cavities, the peritoneum is seen enveloping the 
rest of the viscera ; but this great serous sac is 
subdivided into many compartments. If the 
point of the scissors be inserted into the project¬ 
ing orifice internal to the root of the gill (i,fig. 
226), and the cavity of which it is the outlet be 
laid open, the branchial ventricle, the branchial 
division of the vena cava, and its appended 
follicles will be exposed ; this cavity is sepa¬ 
rated from a corresponding one on the opposite 
side by the systemic heart and the great vessels, 
which are contained in a distinct serous com¬ 
partment. In the Nautilus the two lateral and 
the middle cavities form one large pericardiac 
chamber, appropriated to the heart and great 
vessels, and the venous appendages. 
Behind these cavities, the peritoneum is 
disposed so as to form several compartments : 
one, which commences at the cranial cartilage, 
extends downwards as far as the middle of the 
branchiæ, and contains the oesophagus, the 
inferior salivary glands, the crop, and anterior 
aorta : in front of this, but commencing a little 
* De structura glandularum penitiori, fol. p. 54. 
lower down, is a second, which includes the 
liver and ink-bag. These two cavities are sur¬ 
rounded by a common muscular tunic, of 
which we have already spoken, and the lower 
part, which resembles a diaphragm, is per¬ 
forated by the gullet, the aorta, and the two 
biliary ducts, each of which has a distinct 
aperture. The receptacle which contains the 
gizzard is situated immediately beneath the 
oesophageal sac ; that in which the spiral py¬ 
loric appendage is lodged lies immediately 
behind the left compartment of the pericar¬ 
dium. The intestine is principally contained 
in a serous cavity behind the right division of 
the pericardium ; and the bottom of the sac is 
occupied by the cavity containing the organs 
of generation. 
The digestive organs in the Tetrabranchiate 
Cephalopods would appear to differ in a less 
degree than other parts of their organization from 
the structures observable in the higher order : 
in the Nautilus they present the following con¬ 
The pharynx (f, fig. 217) or commence- 
Fig. 219. 
Digestive Organs, Nautilus Pompilius. 
ment of the gullet, has numerous longitudinal 
rugae internally, and is evidently capable of con¬ 
siderable dilatation. The oesophagus, after 
having passed beneath the brain, or commissure 
of the optic ganglions, dilate into a capacious 
pouch or crop (hi, fig■ 219) of a pyriform shape, 
two inches and three lines in length, and an 
inch in diameter at the broadest part. From 
the bottom of this crop is continued a contracted 
canal {l,fig. 219,) of about three lines in diame¬ 
ter, and half an inch in length, which enters the


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