Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol 1: A-Dea
Todd, Robert Bentley
ladies des voies urinaires, 8vo. Paris, 1791. Mac- 
beath on affections oi the urinary organs among ne¬ 
groes, in Edinb. Med. Comment. Dec.2, vol.x. 1798. 
Desault, Des maladies des voies urinaires (à Bichat 
Ed.) 8vo. Paris, 1799. Sherwen on diseased and 
contracted urinary bladder, 8vo. Lond.1799. Walter, 
Einige Krankheiten der Nieren und Harnblase un¬ 
tersucht, 4to. Berl. 1800. Bell, Engravings of 
morbid parts, fol. Lond. 1803. Schmidt, lieber derj. 
Krank, der Harnblase, &c. 8vo. Wien. 1806. Soem¬ 
mering, lieber tödtlichen Krankheiten der Harn¬ 
blase, 4to. Frft. a M. 1809. Nauche, Des mal. 
de la vessie, &c. 8vo. Paris, 1810. Wadd, Cases 
of diseased bladder, Lond. 1815. Howship on the 
diseases of the urinary organs, 8vo. Lond'. 1816. 
Coquin du Martel, Vice de conformation des 
voies urinaires, &c., in Bullet, de la Soc. Méd. 
d Emulât. Juin 1824. Lallemand, Sur les malad, 
des organes genito-urinaires, 8vo. Paris, 1824. 
Brodie, Lectures on the diseases of the urinary 
organs, &c. 8vo. Lond. 1834. * * * * j)e. 
thwrding, De haemorrhoid, vesicae, ‘ Rost. 1754 
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De ischuria ex tumoribus vesicae, 4to. Lips. 1767, 
in Ej. Advers. Med. vol. ii. * * * * Salzmann, 
De hernia vesicæ urinariae, Argent. 1732 ( Rec. in 
Haller Disp. Chir. t. iii.) Camper, De vesicae 
herniis, in Ej. Demonst. Anat. Pathol, lib. ii. 
Sandifort, De hernia vesicae, in Ej. Obs. Anat. 
Pathol, lib, i. Roose, De nativo vesicae urin. 
inversas prolapsu, 4to. Gotting. 1793. Baillie, 
Remarkable deviation from the natural structure 
in the urinary bladder, &c., Transactions of a 
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rurgical Knowledge, vol. i. Goeckel, De vesica 
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Curios. Dec. 2, A. 5. Raiffer, Diss. sur la cysto- 
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Dorpat. 1806. Fuchs, Hist. anat. prolapsus nativi 
vesicæ urinariæ inversæ, 4to. Jenæ, 1813. * * * * 
Cases of double bladder, by Bordenave, in Mem. 
de Chirurg, t. ii. ; by Lébenwaldt, in Miscell. Acad. 
Nat. Curios. Dec. 2, A. 8, 1689; by Tenon, in 
Mém. de Paris, A. 1768 ; by Bussiere, in Phil. 
Trans. 1701.* * * * Cases of absence of the bladder, 
by Preuss, in Miscel. Ac. Nat. Cur. Dec. 2. An. 7 ; 
by Rengger, in Museum der Heilkunde, B. 2 ; by 
Labourdette, in Sedillot’s Rec. Period, t. xxxii. 
Cases of rupture of the bladder, by J. Johnstone, 
in Mem. of the Med. Soc. of London, vol. iii. ; 
by Kundmann, in Acta Acad. Nat. Curios, vol. vii. ; 
by Montagu, in Med. Communications, vol. ii. ; by 
Zuinger, in Ephem. Nat. Curios. Cent. 7 et 8 ; by 
Berchehnann, in Acta Hassica, A. 1771 ; by Berner, 
in Ephem. Nat. Curios. Cent. 9 et 10; by Schlich¬ 
tung, in Acta Ac. Nat. Curios, vol. vi. ; by Hey, 
in Med. Obs. by a Soc. of Phys. vol. iv. ; by Lynn, 
in the same work, vol. iv. ; by Sedillot, in Rec. 
Period, t. i. ; and by Cusack, in Dub. Hosp. Rep. 
vol. ii. 
( Benjamin Phillips.) 
BLOOD, (Gr. ctl'pcc. Lat. sanguis. Fr. sang. 
Germ. Blut. Ital. sangue). This is the title 
given to the peculiar fluid which carries into 
the living tissues of animals the materials 
necessary to the nutritive processes going on 
within them. 
The physical qualities of this fluid vary 
extremely ; among almost all the lower animals 
it is so far from resembling what we are accus¬ 
tomed to regard as essential to the blood in 
man and the vertebrata generally, that its 
nature is at first sight apt to be mistaken, and 
we cannot be surprised that the inferior tribes 
of creation should have been long supposedly 
to be without blood. In the mammalia, birds»! 
reptiles, fishes, and several of the annelida.,! 
the blood is of a red colour ; among the whole off i 
the invertebrata, a few of the annelida excepted»! 
it is, on the contrary, nearly colourless ; fre-4 
quently it has a decidedly blue tint, and imt 
many instances it is bluish, greenish, or yel—| 
lowish. A celebrated chemist (Berzelius) hasl 
lately stated that the common fly (one of the* 
insecta) had red blood in the head, and colour-4 
less blood in the other parts of its body. Itt 
is true, indeed, that if the head of one of thesej- 
insects be crushed, a reddish fluid is forced! 
out ; but this is not blood ; it proceeds fronnr 
the eyes of the insect, whose blood, in the headli- 
as elsewhere, and among all the other species» 
of the genus, as well as among the arach-ji 
nida, Crustacea, and mollusca, is almost co-L 
From these differences in the appearance!' 
of the nutrient fluid, the animal kingdom has!, 
been divided into anunals having red blooaa^ 
and animals having white blood. But these!-: 
modifications of colour are not perhaps of so}- 
much consequence as has commonly been be-p 
lieved, for they are met with among animalsL 
having in all other respects the most striking!/ 
analogy one with another, as has already beemr 
seen in our particular article on the Anne-Ji 
The blood is an opaque, thickish fluid, of au 
specific gravity greater than that of water. Xml : 
man its density varies from 1,052 to 1,057-f. 
It has a saline and rather sickly taste, andli. 
it diffuses a peculiar odour, which varies s 
somewhat in different tribes, and occasionally/ i 
in the different sexes of the same species- it 
In all the vertebrata, it is, as we have said» 
red ; but the shade of this colour varies inii 
different animals, as it is familiarly known toil3 
do in the same animal, according as it is ex¬ 
amined in its course to the tissues which it is. 
destined to supply with nourishment, or after it 
has already traversed these, and is returning to> > 
the centre of the circulation ; the colour, how- o 
ever, may be stated to be generally deep. 
Examined by the naked eye, the blood ap¬ 
pears to be perfectly fluid and homogeneous; - 
but if it be spread in a very thin stratum uponi . 
the object plate of a microscope, and viewedl . 
under a lens having a magnifying power oft * 
between 200 and 300, it will be seen to con- . 
sist of two distinct and heterogeneous parts,, - 
viz. a transparent yellowish watery fluid, andl 
a number of solid corpuscles, of extreme mi- 
nuteness, suspended in this fluid. To the* . 
fluid portion, the name serum is given; the- . 
minute corpuscles are spoken of as the globule# >. 
of the blood. 
The discovery of the globules of the bloodl . 
is almost contemporaneous with that of the: 
microscope ; it is due to Malpighi and to» . 
Leuwenhoeck. A considerable number of ob¬ 
servers have since engaged in the micro- . 
scopical study of the blood ; but it is to Hew- -■ 
son and to the Messrs. Prévost and Dumas that:, 
science is indebted for the most important facts: t:


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