Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol 1: A-Dea
Todd, Robert Bentley
contribute to the secretory vessels of the liver, 
but proceed to the superior part of that viscus, 
to terminate in the vena cava, as does also the 
umbilical vein. 
“ The vein which returns the blood of the 
inferior extremities is divided in the pelvis 
into two branches, which correspond with the 
femoral and ischiadic arteries ; the one passes 
through the ischiadic foramen, and the other 
through the hole upon the anterior margin of 
the pelvis; but the proportion they bear to 
each other in magnitude is the very reverse of 
what occurs in the arteries ; for the anterior 
vein is the principal one, whilst the other is 
not a very considerable vessel, and receives its 
supply of blood from the muscles at the pos¬ 
terior part of the joint. 
“ The femoral vein (a a), immediately without 
the pelvis, gives branches on both sides, which 
receive the blood of the extensor and adductor 
muscles at their superior part : the trunk passes 
obliquely under the accessory muscle of the 
flexor digitorum, and over the os femoris, 
where it lies superficially ; it then winds under the 
adductor muscles, and gets into the ham (b b), 
where it receives many muscular branches, 
and comes into company with the artery and 
nerve. It here divides into the tibial (c c) and 
peroneal veins. The first is joined by some 
branches from the surface of the joint answer¬ 
ing to the articular arteries; it also receives the 
anterior tibial vein which accompanies the 
artery of the same name. The tibial vein pro¬ 
ceeds down the leg along with the artery on 
the inside of the deep-seated flexors of the 
heel : it turns over the fore part of the articu¬ 
lation of the tibia with the metatarsal bone, 
in order to get upon the inner side of the me¬ 
tatarsus ; above the origin of the pollex, it 
receives a communicating branch from the 
peroneal vein, and immediately after two 
branches from the toes : one of them comes 
from the inside of the internal toe ; the other 
arises from the inside of the external and mid¬ 
dle toes, unites at the root of the toes in the 
sole of the foot, and is joined by a branch from 
the pollex, before its termination in the internal 
vein of the metatarsus. 
“ The peroneal vein derives its principal 
branches along with those of the peroneal 
artery, from the muscles on the outside of the 
leg. The trunk of the vein comes out from 
the peroneal muscles, and passes superficially 
over the joint at the heel, and along the outside 
of the metatarsus ; near the pollex, or great toe, 
it sends a branch round the back of the leg, 
to communicate with the tibial vein; after 
which it is continued upon the outside of the 
external toe to the extremity, receiving anas¬ 
tomosing branches from the tibial vein. 
“ W here the veins run superficially upon the 
upper and lower extremities, they seem to 
supply the place of the branches of the cepha¬ 
lic, basilic, and the two saphena; but the 
analogy is lost upon the upper arm and thigh, 
these branches forming deep-seated trunks; 
this constitutes the greatest peculiarity in the 
distribution of the veins in the extremities of 
■Respiratory organs.—In the course of this 
article we have frequently had occasion to allude 
to the extent and activity of the respiratory func¬ 
tion in the Class of Birds ;* nevertheless the 
organs subservient to this function manifest 
more of the peculiarities of the Reptilian than 
of the Mammalian type of formation. 
The lungs are confined, as in the Tortoise, 
to the back part of the thoracic-abdominal 
cavity, being firmly attached to the ribs and 
their interspaces; and, as in the Serpent, they 
communicate with large membranous cells 
which extend into the abdomen and serve as 
reservoirs of air. 
In those aquatic Birds, which are deprived 
of the power of flight, as the Penguins, the air 
receptacles are confined to the abdomen; but 
in the rest of the class they extend along the 
sides of the neck, and, escaping at the chest and 
pelvis, accompany the muscles of the extre¬ 
mities. They also penetrate the medullary 
cavities and diploë of the bones, extending in 
different species through different proportions of 
the osseous system, until in some birds, as 
the Horn-bill, every bone of the skeleton is 
permeated by air. 
There is, indeed, no class of Animals which 
are so thoroughly penetrated by the me¬ 
dium in which they live and move as that of 
Birds. Fig. 172. 
The lungs (w, fig. 172) 
are two in number, of a 
lengthened, flattened,oval 
shape, extending along 
each side of the spine 
from the second dorsal 
vertebra to the kidneys, 
and laterally to the junc¬ 
tion of the vertebral with 
the sternal ribs. They j 
are not suspended freely j 
as in Mammalia, but are I 
confined to the back parti 
of the chest by cellular! 
membrane, and the pleura ' 
is reflected over the sternal ' 
surface only, to which the 
strong aponeurosis of the b' 
diaphragmatic muscles is 
attached. They are con¬ 
sequently smooth and 
even on the anterior Right lung of a Goose. 
surface, but posteriorly are accurately moulded to 
the inequalities of the ribs and intercostal spaces. 
The lungs in general are of a bright red 
colour, and of a loose spongy texture. The 
bronchi (u,fig. 163; a, fig. 172) penetrate their 
mesial and anterior surfaces about one-third 
from the upper extremities; they divide into 
four, five, or six branches, which diverge as 
they run along the anterior surface ; some in¬ 
complete cartilaginous rings are found through 
their entire extent. 
The orifices of the air-cells of the lungs (c c, 
fig. 172) open upon the posterior parietes of 
the bronchial tubes, while the extremities of 
these tubes terminate by wide openings (b b, 
fig. 172) in the thoracic and abdominal air- 
receptacles. These orifices are oblique, and 
* According to Lavoisier, two Sparrows consume 
as much oxygen in a given time as one Guinea-pig.


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