Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol 1: A-Dea
Person:
Todd, Robert Bentley
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit25759/207/
AORTA. 
moses with the branches which the pancreas 
receives from the superior mesenteric. As the 
gastro-epi ploie artery courses along the greater 
arch of the stomach, it gives off numerous 
branches, some of which ascend on the anterior 
and posterior surfaces of the stomach, and 
anastomose with the coronary and pyloric; 
others descend in the anterior layer of the great 
omentum : some branches from these ascend 
in the posterior layer of this fold of membrane 
until they reach the arch of the colon, where 
they anastomose with the colic branches of the 
superior mesenteric. 
After having given off these branches, the 
hepatic artery ascends towards the right within 
the capsule of Glisson, in front of the vena 
porta, and to the left of the ductus communis 
choledochus. Having reached the transverse 
fissure of the liver, it divides into the right and 
left hepatic arteries which enter the liver by 
divisions corresponding to those of the vena 
porta, the right branch having previously given 
off the cystic artery, which arises opposite the 
junction of the cystic and common hepatic 
ducts, attaches itself to the neck of the gall¬ 
bladder, and soon divides into two branches, 
one of which ramifies over the inferior surface 
of that reservoir, while the other sinks between 
the liver and the gall-bladder. For further 
Particulars relating to the hepatic artery vide 
iIVER. 
The splenic is the largest of the three branches 
of the cceliac. Immediately after its origin it 
passes with numerous contortions to the left, 
behind the stomach and along the superior 
border of the pancreas to the fissure of the 
spleen. In this course it gives off pancreatic 
branches (pancreatic ce magnæ et parvæ ), which 
anastomose with the pancreatic branches of 
the right gastro-epiploic. It gives a large 
branch, the left gastro-epiploic, which some¬ 
times arises from one of the branches in which 
the splenic terminates. This branch passes 
onwards to the left until it reaches the greater 
arch of the stomach, along which it descends, 
passes to the right until it meets the right 
gastro-epiploic, with which it anastomoses. 
In its course it gives off, like the right gastro- 
| ' epiploic, superior branches, which pass over 
j the anterior and posterior surfaces of the sto- 
I mach to anastomose with the branches of the 
coronary and inferior branches which descend 
Î in the great omentum, where they have a simi¬ 
lar distribution with the descending branches 
of the right gastro-epiploic : near the fissure of 
the spleen, the splenic artery divides into five 
or six branches, which anastomose by arches, 
and enter the substance of that organ. Before 
entering the substance of the spleen these 
branches give off large vessels, called vasa 
brevia, which bend to the right, and are dis- 
: tributed to the great extremity of the stomach, 
I- spreading over its anterior and posterior sur- 
] faces, where they -anastomose with branches of 
I the coronary and right gastro-epiploic. 
The superior mesenteric artery, often larger 
I than the cceliac, arises from the aorta imme- 
I diately after the cceliac ; sometimes from a trunk 
I common to both vessels, as in the tortoise. This 
195 
artery is at first concealed by the pancreas, it 
descends perpendicularly behind that gland, 
and crossing the termination of the duodenum 
arrives at the root of the mesentery, between 
the two layers of which it descends. In the 
middle of this fold of the peritoneum it forms 
a considerable curve, the convexity of which is to 
the left, and directs its course towards the ter¬ 
mination of the small intestine in the right iliac 
region, forming near its termination a second 
curve, the concavity of which is to the left. 
Near its origin this artery gives some branches 
to the duodenum and pancreas, by means of 
which it anastomoses with the branches of the 
hepatic and splenic sent to these organs : in the 
mesentery it sends off from its left side the 
arteries of the small intestines, and from its 
right the arteries which it supplies to the great 
intestine. 
Arteries of the small intestines.—These arise 
from the left side of the superior mesenteric, 
varying in number from fifteen to twenty ; the 
superior are longer and larger, those which 
succeed them appear to diminish progressively 
in length and size, they all advance between 
the two layers of the mesentery to the concave 
side of the intestine ; at a certain distance from 
their origin they divide into secondary branches 
which diverge from each other at acute angles ; 
these secondary branches subdivide into still 
smaller branches, which, diverging in a similar 
manner, form arches of anastomoses with cor¬ 
responding branches of the adjoining arteries ; 
the convexities of these arches are all turned 
towards the intestine, and from them numerous 
branches arise, which, by dividing and anasto¬ 
mosing like the larger trunks, form a second 
series of smaller arches ; other branches arising 
from the convexities of these arches divide and 
anastomose to form still smaller and more 
numerous arches; thus we have three, some¬ 
times four, and occasionally five series of 
arches, formed by the subdivisions of these 
arteries before they reach the intestine, and 
presenting in the mesentery a network with 
large meshes. From the convexities of the 
extreme arches which form the outer border of 
this network, thousands of small arteries pass 
in a straight direction to the tube of the intes¬ 
tine ; these form two series, an anterior and a 
posterior, which apply themselves to the oppo¬ 
site surfaces of the intestine, and anastomose 
with each other on its convex border. The 
detailed description of their further distribution 
will come under consideration in the article 
Intestinal Canal. 
Colic arteries. — The superior mesenteric 
sends off three, sometimes only two, branches 
from its concavity, called right colic arteries, dis¬ 
tinguished as superior or colica media, middle or 
colica dextra, and inferior or ileo-colic ; when 
there are but two, the superior and middle form 
but a single trunk; the inferior is generally 
distinct. 
The right superior colic or colica media arises 
a few inches distant from the origin of the supe¬ 
rior mesenteric; it passes forwards between the 
layers of the meso-colon towards the middle of 
the transverse colon, and divides into a right 
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