Volltext: The elements of experimental phonetics

the cortex on each side are closely connected with the volun¬ 
tary control of the muscles (see Fig. 57, p. 83). Injury of 
definite portions' of these regions is followed by very de¬ 
finite disturbance in the power to voluntarily perform certain 
movements. This does not mean that the volitions are 
located in these portions of the brain, but that the two are 
closely connected in function. 
A volition may be followed by a muscular act; thus the 
decision to press the tongue against the teeth may be followed 
by the actual performance of the act. The series of irritations 
may be traced back from the muscles through the end-plates, 
nerves and nerve centers in the central gray masses of the 
cerebrum to cells in the cortex. The connection between the 
volition, a mental fact, and the activity of the cortical cells, a 
physical fact, has found no satisfactory explanation. 
Some of the peripheral nerves arise directly from the brain. 
Among these is the Jiypoglossus, which controls all the tongue 
muscles and most of those connected with the hyoid bone. 
The vagus contains motor fibers to the larynx and the bron¬ 
chial muscles ; sensory fibers from the larynx, trachea, bronchi 
and lungs ; motor and inhibitory fibers to the velum ; sensory 
fibers from the pharynx. The glossopharyngeus contains motor 
fibers to the velum (elevator of the velum), uvula, pharynx 
(middle constrictor of the pharynx) and the stylopharyn¬ 
geal muscle; sensory fibers from the tongue and velum. The 
acusticus is the nerve of hearing. The facialis contains motor 
fibers to the face muscles, the stylohyoid and the stapedius 
muscles. The trigeminus contains motor fibers to the jaw 
muscles, the tensor tympani and the tensor of the velum. 
Voluntary impulses do not act on separate muscles, but 
on the same complexes of cells as are involved in reflex 
Owing to the lack of data concerning the action of the 
nervous system and to the lack of methods for its investi¬ 
gation in regard to the production of speech sounds, the 
work of experimental phonetics lies at present almost entirely 
in studying the muscular movements and the volitions that


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