Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory. Text
Burdon-Sanderson, John Scott E. Klein Michael Foster T. Lauder Brunton
be determined by means of a standard solution of chloride of 
barium ; the method is one, however, which is tedious, and which 
cannot be recommended, even on the score of rapidity, as prefer¬ 
able to the one first described. 
**199. Detection of Sugar in Urine.—It is still a matter of 
doubt whether the urine in health contains sugar; the processes 
which have been suggested, for the separation of this substance, by 
those who maintain its constant occurrence in healthy urine are, 
however, complicated ; and as they have led to very various results 
in the hands of different observers, their consideration would be out 
of place in this book. (See Pflüger’s Archiv, für Physiol. V. pp. 359 
and 375.) 
When present in abnormal quantities in urine, as in diabetes, 
glucose may be very readily detected. The following experiments 
will be sufficient to make the student acquainted with the more 
common reactions. 
Experiment 1. Take 5 cubic centimeters of diabetic urine, or of 
a solution of grape sugar, and add to it two or three drops of a 
solution of copper sulphate, so that a very slight green tinge is 
perceptible; then add to the fluid a solution of caustic soda, or 
potash, until the precipitate of hydrate copper oxide, at first 
formed, is redissolved. 
The fluid, which has assumed a blue tint, is now boiled, when 
an abundant precipitate of cuprous oxide falls ; before this has 
separated, the fluid in which the precipitation is effected becomes 
opaque, and presents a reddish yellow colour. This is known as 
Trommels test (see § 77 and § 12). 
2. To five cubic centimeters of urine add nearly an equal 
volume of a solution of caustic soda, or potash, and boil. The 
fluid will assume at first a light yellow, then an amber, and lastly 
a dark brown coloration. This is known as Moore's test. 
3. Some diabetic urine is mixed with a little brewers' yeast, and 
the mixture is poured into a test tube half full of mercury ; the 
orifice of the tube is closed with the thumb, and the tube is 
inverted into a capsule containing mercury. 
After a period of twenty-four hours, at ordinary temperatures, 
the test-tube will be found to contain large quantities of carbonic 
acid gas, which can be readily absorbed by passing up into the 
tube a fragment of caustic potash. 
In addition to these tests, the student may with advantage 
determine, by means of a polariscope, that diabetic urine possesses 
the property of rotating the plane of polarized light to the right. 
** 200. Determination of the Quantity of Sugar in Urine. 
—This may be best effected by one of the two following methods :— 
firstly, by determining to what extent a known depth of the saccha¬ 
rine fluid rotates the plane of polarized light to the right; or,


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