Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory. Text
Burdon-Sanderson, John Scott E. Klein Michael Foster T. Lauder Brunton
resinous mass (cholalic acid and dyslysin) separates. The fluid is 
poured off from the resin and evaporated. The residue is then dis¬ 
solved in water warmed with hydrated lead oxide, and filtered ; the 
filtrate decomposed by hydrogen-sulphide, filtered, and the filtrate 
The transparent rhomboidal crystals of glycocine thus obtained 
are then washed with absolute alcohol. They have a sweet taste, 
and are readily soluble in cold water; almost insoluble in ether 
and alcohol. 
# 144. Taurocholic Acid (C26 NS07) is present along with 
glycocholic acid in ox bile ; it is the chief acid in human bile, and 
the only one in that of dog^s. Preparation.—Suspend the lead- 
taurocholate obtained from crystallized bile in alcohol, and decom¬ 
pose it by hydrogen-sulphide : filter ; evaporate the filtrate at a 
moderate temperature to a small bulk, place it in a stoppered bottle, 
and precipitate by a great excess of ether. The acid is precipitated 
as a syrup. After standing, it changes, if the process is successful, 
to fine silky crystals, which, when exposed to air, dissolve, or form 
a syrup. 
Taurocholic acid is soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in 
ether. It is recognized as a bile acid by giving Pettenkofer’s 
reaction, and is distinguished from glycocholic acid by not being 
precipitated by lead acetate alone, but by lead acetate and 
ammonia, and from any other bile acid by yielding taurin when 
decomposed by boiling with hydrochloric acid. It may be pre¬ 
pared from taurocholic acid or from crude bile. 
145. Taurine. (C2 H7 NS03)—Preparation.—Boil ox gall with 
dilute hydrochloric acid for several hours. The bile acids are thus 
decomposed:—Taurine and glycocine combine with the hydrochloric 
acid, and remain in solution, cholic acid separating as a resinous 
mass. Filter the fluid, evaporate the filtrate to dryness, extract 
the residue with absolute alcohol to remove the glycocine-hydro- 
chlorate, dissolve the residue in water, and allow it to stand and 
crystallize. In order to purify it, dissolve it in spirit, precipitate 
it with lead acetate, decompose the precipitate with hydrogen-sul¬ 
phide, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness, extract the residue 
with absolute alcohol, dissolve the taurine which remains in a very 
little water, and allow it to crystallize. Taurine is soluble in 
fifteen or sixteen parts of cold water, and in a much smaller 
quantity of hot water. In cold alcohol it is sparingly soluble, 
more easily in warm alcohol. It is insoluble in absolute alcohol 
and ether. Taurine is recognized by its crystalline form, and by its 
containing sulphur. Its crystals are* colourless, transparent, six- 
sided prisms, with four to six sided pointed ends (fig. 312). 
Taurine is proved to contain sulphur as follows :—If a crystal is 
heated on platinum foil, it swells, becomes brown, and fuses, giving


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