Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory. Text
Person:
Burdon-Sanderson, John Scott E. Klein Michael Foster T. Lauder Brunton
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit18583/259/
250 
CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD. 
seen to be dilated. The portal system is filled with blood; the 
small vessels of the mesentery, and those which ramify on the 
surface of the intestine are beautifully injected, the vessels of the 
kidneys are dilated, and the parenchyma is hyperæmic; all of 
which facts indicate, not merely that by the relaxation of the ab¬ 
dominal blood-vessels a large proportion of the resistance to the 
heart is annulled, but that a quantity of blood is, so to speak, 
transferred into the portal system, and thereby as completely 
discharged from the systemic circulation as if a great internal 
hæmorrhage had taken place. 
Part II.—The Heart. 
Section V.—The Movements oe the Heart. 
The method of demonstrating the movements of the heart, 
stated in the order of their importance, are the following :—• 
1. Exposure of the contracting heart in situ. 2. Appli¬ 
cation of instruments to the præcordia, for the purpose of 
measuring the cardiac movements of the wrall of the chest. 
3. Listening to the sounds of the heart. 4. Imitating the 
movements of the living heart by the production of similar 
passive movements in the dead heart. 
57* Study of the Movements of the Heart in the Frog.— 
Before beginning the study of its movements, an adequate 
knowledge of the form and anatomical relations of the organ 
must be gained by dissection. Por this purpose, the heart 
and great vessels should be filled with some solid substance 
which can be rendered fluid by warming it ; such, for example, 
as cacao butter or the ordinary gelatin mass (see Chap. VI.). 
This must be injected by the vena cava inferior in sufficient 
quantity to fill the heart and great vessels (see fig. 228). It 
is then seen that the organ, as a whole, is egg-shaped ; but is 
more or less flattened from side to side by a furrow which crosses 
the heart nearly at right angles to its axis, but inclines down- 
wai ds towards the left ; it is divided into an upper globular 
(formed of the two auricles) and a lower conical part (the ven¬ 
tricle). On its anterior aspect, the ventricle is continuous with a 
cylindrical prominence (the bulb), which projects from the anterior 
aspect of the right auricle, and terminates above by dividing into 
two arteries, the right and left aorta. Of these aortæ, which part 
from each other at the middle line, the left is the larger. The 
posterior wall of the right auricle extends backwards into a club- 
shaped appendage, the sinus venosus. This body may be
        

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