Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory. Text
Burdon-Sanderson, John Scott E. Klein Michael Foster T. Lauder Brunton
vascular paralysis is incomplete unless this communication is 
broken by the extirpation of the ganglion. To accomplish this, 
the incision must he continued upwards in the angle of the jaw 
(see fig. 227). The carotid artery and the vagus which accom¬ 
panies it, having been brought into view as far upwards as the 
stylohyoid muscle, are drawn forwards and towards the middle line 
with the blunt hook by an assistant, while the sympathetic trunk 
is followed upwards behind the artery with the aid of two pairs of 
blunt forceps. The space in which the ganglion lies is crossed by 
the trunk of the hypoglossal nerve, and by the stylohyoid muscle. 
The latter should be divided. The extirpation of the ganglion is 
best effected with blunt-pointed scissors. After section of the 
sympathetic trunk in the neck, the normal condition of the ear is 
gradually restored ; but if the ganglion is destroyed, the effect is 
56. (2.) Demonstration of the Vasomotor Functions of 
the Splanchnic Nerves.—The splanchnic nerves contain (in ad¬ 
dition to those fibres which govern the peristaltic movements of the 
intestine, with which we have at present no concern) sensory and 
vasomotor fibres. The vasomotor fibres are distributed to the 
arteries of the abdominal viscera. Their importance depends on 
the fact that these arteries receive so large a share of the systemic 
blood-stream (especially in the rabbit), that the resistance offered 
by the arterial system to the discharge of blood from the heart is 
largely affected by any alteration of their calibre. The sensory 
part of the nerve, in common with other sensory nerves, contains 
fibres by which the vasomotor centre is influenced. It is also, as 
will be seen in a future section, in reflex relation with the heart 
through the vagus. The splanchnic nerve in the rabbit leaves the 
sympathetic trunk at the 8th or 9th ganglion, passes downwards 
in front of the psoas major muscle, receiving branches from the 
other thoracic ganglia. At the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra, 
the two nerves lie on either side of the descending aorta, and 
accompany it downwards until it reaches the diaphragm, at which 
point the right splanchnic is further away from the vessel than the 
left. After entering the belly, the left splanchnic retains the same 
relation to the aorta as before, ending in the lower of the two cæliac 
ganglia, which is easily found above the left supra-renal capsule on 
the front of the aorta. The right nerve is more difficult to find 
from its lying further from the aorta, separated from it by the 
breadth of the vena cava. It ends at the level of the right supra¬ 
renal capsule, in the superior cæliac ganglion which lies in front of the 
vein. The splanchnic nerve may be reached either in the abdomen or 
in the thorax. In very exact experiments, and especially in those that 
relate to the functions of the afferent fibres, it is obviously desir¬ 
able that these organs should not be exposed by opening the peri-


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