Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory. Text
Burdon-Sanderson, John Scott E. Klein Michael Foster T. Lauder Brunton
The structure of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi can be com- 
pletely studied in sections of organs hardened in chromic acid. 
The epithelium has been already fully described elsewhere. 
An animal having just been killed, the tubes are opened, 
washed with very dilute solution of bichromate of potash, and 
placed in the hardening liquid. In thin sections, the relations 
of the mucosa, submucosa with its glands, cartilages, perichon¬ 
drium, muscular fibres, and ganglia, may be completely made out. 
The blood-vessels may be injected in the ordinary way, and the 
lymphatics by puncture of the submucosa. The network 
of elastic fibres which surround the alveoli are most readily 
studied in thin sections of fresh-frozen lungs of small mammalia. 
The sections are steeped in acidulated water till the air-bubbles 
have escaped, and then spread out on an object-glass and covered 
in glycerin. The structure of the fine bronchi may be well studied 
as regards its epithelium, minute glands, muscular coat, and 
innumerable large ganglionic masses, in sections of lungs of 
human foetuses of the last months of pregnancy, which have been 
hardened in one-tenth or one-eighth per cent, solution of chromic 
acid. The flat epithelial elements of the alveoli, as well as those 
which line the finest bronchial tubes, can be best examined in lungs 
of small mammalia, prepared by placing a cannula in the trachea, 
removing the sternum, and then injecting the bronchi with one- 
tenth to one-eighth per cent, solution of chromic acid, until the 
organ is moderately distended. The trachea is then tied, and 
the lungs are carefully removed from the thorax along with the 
heart, after separating them first from the spinal column, and 
then from the diaphragm ; the whole is then placed in liquid of the 
same strength. Another method, which, however, does not answer 
so well, is that of injecting half per cent, solution of silver into the 
pulmonary artery. Good injected preparations of lungs can be 
obtained by filling the air-passages with cacao butter, and the 
Dlood-vessels with gelatin-mass, simultaneously. A rabbit is 
killed by opening the crural artery. The trachea having been


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