Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

74 
Psychology of Music 
quality. This is illustrated in Fig. 5, which is a copy of a chart 
issued by the National Association of Musical Instrument Manu¬ 
facturers,101 1927. The chart is self-explanatory. The limits here 
indicated are merely approximations and can vary under a large 
number of circumstances. 
PITCH PERFORMANCE 
We have dealt with the ability to hear tones and to hear differ¬ 
ences in tones. There is a parallel on the side of tone production; 
namely, in the range of tone production of voice or instrument and 
the precision of intonation. Various aspects of this will be discussed 
in the chapter on Musical Skills. 
Control of intonation. The ability to control the pitch of tones 
presents three types of situations: (1) the reproduction of a stand¬ 
ard tone; (2) the making of fine deviations from the standard; and 
(3) the production of intervals. 
The capacity for reproducing a standard tone is relatively 
elemental. It depends primarily upon a good sense of pitch. Natu¬ 
rally one cannot control pitch any finer than he can hear it; but 
the control of pitch is frequently subject to considerable improve¬ 
ment by training, principally the type of discipline that makes the 
ear more critical. Ordinarily the fault is not in the voice or instru¬ 
ment but in the fidelity of the ear and auditory imagery. To exercise 
critical control, it follows that the capacity for pitch control in 
intonation varies in a way somewhat parallel to a variation in 
capacity for pitch discrimination. However, in stringed instru¬ 
ments and in wind instruments, a large element of skill is required, 
and that comes only with rigorous training. 
The power of precision in controlling artistic deviation from 
true pitch is again primarily a matter of a sensitive ear, rather than 
muscular control, although in both voice and instrument a certain 
amount of experience and training is necessary. In Chap. 27, we 
shall see some exercises for training in this respect. 
The control of intervals hinges primarily upon interval concepts. 
Some of the intervals are natural ; others are more or less arbitrary. 
But a certain amount of training is necessary in order to standard¬ 
ize the concept of interval. Historically speaking, there has been a 
variety of scales, and even at the present time in modern music 
there is considerable dispute about minor differences in intervals 
which constitute scales. But, given the concept of interval, preci-
        

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