Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Psychology of Music 
material in these three fields may be made to suit one’s taste; but 
in general, drill on these three fundamentals should serve the 
purpose of ear training and motor control. Indeed, whatever 
specific training is to be undertaken, it would be well to precede 
it with training in each of these three factors as they are indicated. 
The chief purpose of these directions is to explain the method 
by which remedial training may be instituted: (1) for specific 
training in pitch control at an early stage as a part of the ear-train¬ 
ing course; (2) for the correction of any recognized fault in singing 
or playing true pitch; and (3) as a means of mastering artistic 
deviations from true pitch. 
Remedial training for specific defects. The principal faults of 
intonation occur in the following factors: 
1. General failure to secure true pitch. Remedy: Drill on 
varied exercises in pitch intonation. 
2. Sharp or flat of the principal tone in general or in some 
specific region. Remedy: Practice exercises with the tonoscope 
where the fault exists until the ear control has been corrected and 
the fault eliminated. 
3. Faulty attack, mainly slovenliness in dragging gradually 
into the tone from above or below. Remedy: Practice by the aid 
of the eye until the tone can be reached in a clear-cut attack. This is 
a preliminary requirement to artistic deviation in attack. 
4. Faulty release. The same situation applies as in attack. 
5. Progressive change. Gradual sharping or flatting habitually 
in a sustained tone. Remedy: Practice on actual musical tones or 
phrases in which the difficulty occurs. 
6. Specific tendencies to sharp or flat; as with a loud tone or a 
soft tone or with certain vowels. Remedy: Specific corrective work 
in actual situations. 
Artistic control. When we record artistic performance of singers 
or players with great precision photographically, a mass of devia¬ 
tions in pitch intonation shows up. Many of them are, of course, 
merely faulty intonation due to error or incapacity in performance; 
but many have artistic value. One group of these represents 
artistic intention. Another, a much larger class, represents 
psychophysic tendencies for intonation of interval that are 
produced unconsciously by the performer but yet serve artistic 
purpose in the melodic situation or in the modification of tone 
quality. The collection and classification of samples of this latter


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