Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

equal to the lower, until they are turned bottom up, § 
\ andg. 
I But something still more curious is to come. The 
distances in the monocular field depend upon the way 
they are filled. If instead of distances marked by 
points we draw lines, the difference between hori¬ 
zontal and vertical becomes less and our map is 
Not only this ; the apparent equality depends on how 
adjacent parts of the field are filled. If the two dis¬ 
tances are used as lines for the sides of a square, the 
difference is still less ; if they are used as points in the 
circumference of a circle, the difference disappears 
entirely. Again, the filling of the space, the directions 
of adjacent lines, &c., influence the results. Thus the 
map changes continually. 
We have just been speaking of comparing distances. 
In order to illustrate the methods employed in accurate 
psychological comparisons of distance I will describe 
an investigation by Merkel* into what is called “measure¬ 
ment by the eye.” The investigation takes one of the 
s particular cases I have mentioned ; it is, however, not 
confined to the determination of the lengths compared, 
but inquires into the psychological factors coming into 
The person experimented upon was seated looking 
down on a black horizontal line drawn on white card¬ 
board (Fig. 98). The line was cut in the middle by a 
fine piece of steel; two other pieces of steel cut off 
portions on each side. The observer thus saw an 
indefinitely long line with three fine cross lines, of 
which the middle one was at the point of sharpest 
1 Merkel, Die Methode der mittleren Fehler, experimentell begrün¬ 
det durch Versuche aus dem Gebiete des Raummasses, III., “ Philos. 
Studien,” 1893, ix. 400.


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