Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. II: Quantitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Person:
Titchener, Edward B.
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit11940/465/
288 The Metric Methods 
r 
D 
r 
D 
r 
D 
r 
D 
r 
D 
n 
PE 
n 
PE 
n 
PE 
n 
PE 
n 
PE 
0.50 
0.00 
0.60 
0.38 
0.70 
0.78 
0.80 
1.25 
0.90 
1.90 
0.51 
0.04 
0.61 
0.41 
0.71 
0.82 
0.81 
1.30 
0.91 
1 -99 
0.52 
0.07 
0.62 
o-45 
0.72 
0.86 
0.82 
t-30 
0.92 
2.08 
°-53 
0.11 
0.63 
0.49 
o-73 
0.91 
0.83 
1.41 
o-93 
2.19 
0.54 
0.15 
0.64 
°-53 
0.74 
0.-95 
0.84 
1.47 
0.94 
2.31 
0.55 
0.19 
0.65 
o-57 
0.75 
i .00 
0.85 
1 - 54 
o-95 
2.44 
0.56 
0.22 
0.66 
0.61 
0.76 
LOS 
0.86 
t. 60 
0.96 
2.60 
0.57 
0.26 
0.67 
0.65 
0.77 
I. IO 
0.87 
1.67 
0.97 
2.79 
0.58 
0.30 
0.68 
0.69 
0.78 
I.14 
0.88 
1.74 
0.98 
3-°5 
0-59 
o-34 
0.69 
0.74 
0.79 
I .20 
0 
00 
VO 
1.82 
0.99 
3-45 
Fullerton and Cattell employ the method of r. and w. answers in experi¬ 
ments on extent1 and force of movement,2 lifted weights 3 and lights.4 
Kraepelin discusses Jastrow’s proposal of the PE as measure of the 
D.S., without committing himself to its adoption.5 Higier says nothing 
at all of the proposal. He utilises his results6 to examine (i) the in¬ 
fluence of various eliminable sources of error (practice, fatigue, spatial 
position, etc.) ; (2) the constancy of the r ‘fo with relatively equal D ; 
(3) the deviations of his hD-curve from that of Fechner’s Fundamental 
Table ; (4) the constancy of the product of D into Fechner’s h, and of 
rx and r2 into Müller’s h and h' ; (5) the course of the PE of the dif¬ 
ferent R and D ; (6) the amount of agreement with the variable and 
constant errors of the method of av. error, which he also employed ; 
(7) the possibility of a calculation of the j. n. and j. u. A-difference ; and 
(8) the probable sources of the constant errors. Higier also made 
experiments by the classical method of r, w and e cases, in order (9) to 
gain an experimental basis for the distribution of the ^-judgments. He 
considers the principles of proportional, equal (Fechner) and unequal 
(Müller) distribution, and decides, on the whole, in favour of the second.7 
We turn now to some criticisms of the method. Merkel, who had 
1 Ibid., 59 ff. A few (/-cases occurred. 
2 Ibid., 77 ff. Results from the method of j. n. d. are transformed into r and w 
cases. 
3 Ibid., 120 ff. The (/-cases are halved between r and w. 
4 Ibid., 138 ff. The (/-cases are treated as before. 
5 P. S., vi., 510 f. Merkel condemns it : P. S., vii., 629. 
6 P. S., vii., 233, 246, 248. Higier combined Jastrow’s method of r. and w. an¬ 
swers with the Wundtian principle of minimal changes, and from the resultant 
method derives two test values, “ einen Procentsatz r-Fälle resp. sein Präcisions- 
mass und einen eben merklichen A’-Unterschied.” For the test-value of av. error 
he uses the mean variable error : 233, 237. 
7 Ibid., 274 ff.—It may be remarked that another pupil of Kraepelin’s, E. Löw¬ 
enton, employed Jastrow’s method in his Versuche über das Gedächtniss im 
Bereiche des Raumsinnes der Haut; Diss., Dorpat, 1893, 25. See A. Wreschner, 
Z., viii., 1895, r42 ff- The method is also approved by Foucault (Psychophysique, 
387 f.), whose reasoning, however, can hardly be taken seriously.
        

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