Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. II: Quantitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Titchener, Edward B.
The Metric Methods 
appears to have miscalculated his results, and Preyer is also guilty of minor 
errors), and the further references, p. 237. 
J. Sauveur (1700) perceived a difference between the tones of two monochord 
Strings, tuned to unison, when the length of the one was reduced The pitch 
of the strings is not stated. Preyer suspects a change of tension.—W. Weber 
writes : “ I can say from experience that the ear senses delicately enough, under 
favourable conditions, to determine the tones unaided so accurately that the error 
never amounts to more than 1 vibration in 200 ” (Pogg. Ann., xiv. [xc.], 1828, 398, 
400).—J. H. Scheibler (1840 : quoted by Preyer) failed to distinguish a difference 
of 0.5 v. in the of 230.4 vs. 
(2) A. Seebeck found, in 1846, that practised ears could distinguish 
■with certainty between the tones of two forks of 440 and 439.636 vs. 
That is, the j. n. d. for the tone «'=440 was 0.363.—Pogg. Ann., lxviii. 
(cxliv.), 1846, 462. Cf. Preyer, 27 ; O. Wolf, Sprache u. Ohr, 1871, 248. 
Misquoted by Fechner, El., i., 260. 
(3) W. Preyer worked, in 1876, with Appunn’s 'tone-difference ap¬ 
paratus : ’ a refined form of the reed tonometer, giving the tones 500, 
500.1, 500.2, . . . 501, 504, 508, 512, and 1000, 1000.2, . . . 1000.8, 
1001, 1008, 1016, 1024, 2048, 4096. Highly practised 0’s distinguished 
with certainty between the tones 500 and 500.3, and 1000 and 1000.5 
(under extremely favourable conditions, 1000.4 : Preyer must have had 
extra reeds to give the tones 1000.25 and 1000.5 I see P- 31)- Unprac¬ 
tised 0’s invariably recognised a difference of 16 vs. within the limits c 
to c3 ; little practised 0’s a difference of 8 vs. between c and c2, and a 
slightly greater difference in the region of the c3. 
For the low tones below 40, Preyer sets the j. n. d. at i v. or more for 
practised, and at 2, 3 or more vs. for unpractised 0’s. For the tones be¬ 
tween 40 and 120, he thinks that a j. n. d. of 0.5 v. may be attained with 
practice, though unpractised 0’s require a difference of 2 or more vs. 
These statements appear to rest upon personal observation, though not 
upon systematic experiments. For the region above the 0, he cites only 
a few observations with high forks.—Gr. d. Tonw., 28-36. 
A. von Dommer (1862; Preyer, 33) asserts that the extreme limit of tonal 
discrimination, throughout the musical scale, may be set at 0.002 octave. Cf. 
the belief of E. H. Weber and Fechner, p. 233, above.—Volkmar v. Volkmânn 
(Lehrbuch d. Psychol., ed. H. Cornelius, 1884, i., 233) allows the ear a range of 10 
octaves divided into quarter tones, or 280 qualities. 
Wundt (P. P., 1874, 369) says that he found the fork tone al=435 vs. j. n. d. 
from the tone of 432,—a difference of 3 vs. The observation is not found in later 
Following Preyer’s example, we may put the above results together in the form 
of a Table.


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