Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. II: Quantitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Titchener, Edward B.
The Metric Methods 
applications of the law of error worked out by Fechner, Müller, 
Wundt, Merkel, Fullerton and Cattell, G. F. Lipps, etc.1 The 
logic of the theory of probabilities is best discussed, perhaps, by 
G. Boole, An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on which 
are founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Prob¬ 
abilities, 1854 ; by J. Venn, in the Logic of Chance ; and by B. 
Bosanquet, Logic, or the Morphology of Knowledge, 1888 
(against Venn). A History of the Mathematical Theory of Prob¬ 
ability was published by I. Todhunter in 1865. Useful and easily 
accessible articles are those on Probability by M. W. Crofton 
(mathematical) in the Encyc. Brit., 9th edn., and by E. W. Davis 
and F. Franklin (largely logical and historical) in Baldwin’s 
Diet, of Philos., ii. Both articles give references to the literature. 
The serious student will, of course, go back to Laplace's Théorie 
analytique des probabilités (first published in complete form in 
1812), and the more popular Essai philosophique sur les prob¬ 
abilités (1814: very poorly translated by F. W. Truscott and F. 
L. Emory, 1902) which serves as introduction to it in the Oeu¬ 
vres, 1843-7, v°b vii., and to Gauss’ Theoria combinationis ob- 
servationum erroribus minimis obnoxia (1812-26).2 
1 We may here mention a series of articles by E. W. Scripture that bear more 
or less closely upon the matter in hand : The Method of Regular Variation, A. J. 
P., iv., 1892, 577 ; Psychological Measurements, Philos. Rev., ii., 1893, 677 i Ac¬ 
curate Work in Psychology, A. J. P., v., 1894, 427 ; Some Psychological Illustra¬ 
tions of the Theorems of Bernoulli and Poisson, ibid., 431 ; On Mean Values for 
Direct Measurements, Yale Stud., ii., 1894, 1 (gives many references) ; Adjust¬ 
ment of Simple Psychological Measurements, Psych. Rev., i., 1894, 281 ; Practical 
Computation of the Median, ibid., ii., 1895, 37^ ; Elementary Course in Psycholo¬ 
gical Measurements, Yale Stud., iv., 1896, 89; Computation of a Set of Simple 
Direct Measurements, ibid., viii., 1900, 109. The articles contain much useful 
material, but are of varying merit, psychologically and mathematically. See also 
The New Psychology, 1897, chs. ii., iii., and App. i., ii., iii., vii.; and V. Henri, Le 
calcul des probabilités en psychologie, Année psych., ii., 1896 (1895), 466 ff. ; v*> 
1899, i 53 ff.—Useful books to have in the laboratory are F. Castle, Workshop 
Mathematics, pts. i. and ii., 1900. 
2 At the end of this Section, as originally written, the author had said : “ Now 
that mathematical methods are being widely applied to the study of organic evolu¬ 
tion, we shall doubtless have text-books of applied mathematics for biologists and 
psychologists, as we already have them for mechanical and civil engineers. In 
that event, the purely mathematical deduction of formulae may be banished from 
works upon psychology.” Since the writing of these words two books, of especial 
interest to experimental psychology, have appeared from the pen of E. L. Thorn-


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