Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. I: Qualitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Titchener, Edward B.
Auditory Sensation 
matter that the c-forks may very possibly belong to a different 
scale from the «-forks. Those used in the experiments quoted 
below proved, on comparison with the ioo-vibr. fork, to have a 
pitch of 528.27 ± .07 (the results of four counts were : 528.2, 
528.4, 528.3, 528.2). That is to say, they had been tuned to a c 
of 528, the a below which is an a of 440. —The b below a,c of 
528.27 is a tone of 495.25. 
Experiment.—It is usually the case that the right ear is 
the high-pitch, the left the low-pitch ear. The pitch-difference 
varies in amount in normal ears. It may be as much as 1 /4 
of a musical tone. The average difference, for this part of the 
musical scale, may however be estimated at about 1/16 of a 
Much time may be saved in the performance of the experi¬ 
ment if the Instructor prepare beforehand a short series of balls 
of wax whose attachment to the fork produces a known number 
of beats. An illustration will make the method clear. 
(a) In a series of 13 preliminary experiments, descending (from 
right fork ‘too sharp’ to right fork ‘equal’), made with the c- 
forks, the Instructor found that the pitch-difference between the 
right (sharp) and left (flat) ears was a fraction over 4 vibrations. 
That is, the pitch-difference disappeared when the right fork was 
loaded with a bit of wax large enough to give a fraction over 4 
beats per sec. when the two forks were sounded together. — In 
a series of 7 experiments ascending (from right fork ‘ too flat ’ to 
right fork ‘equal’), made with the same forks, the pitch-difference 
found was again a fraction over 4 vibrations. 
(\b) The lump of wax which gave 4 + vibrations in the first 
series was divided as accurately as possible into four pieces. 
The value of these pieces was then determined by the beat- 
method. A bottle, tuned to the pitch of the loaded fork by 
pouring in water, served as resonator ; the beats of the loaded 
and normal forks were counted for 5 periods of 10 sec. each. 
The results were as follows : 
Piece I........Beats 12 , 12 + , 12 + , 12 , 12 
Pieces 1, 2...... “ 20+, 20 + , 20 + , 20+, 20 + 
“ b 2,3...... “ 3° > 3° , 3° > 3° , 30 
“ b z, 3, 4...... “ 4° , 4° + , 4° + , 40 , 4°


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