Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. I: Qualitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Person:
Titchener, Edward B.
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit11938/300/
266 Visual Space Perception 
the same straight line, and the panels at an angle of 45° to the 
mirrors. 
Push the slides well out upon the arms, at equal distances from 
the mirrors. Move the arms gradually outwards, away from you, 
till the images combine. The position recommended by Wheat¬ 
stone as starting-point is. that in which the binocular image 
appears of its natural size, i.e., of the size of the diagrams. 
Any position will do, in which the eyes combine the diagrams 
easily and without,strain. 
Move the arms still farther out. The magnitude of the retinal 
images remains constant, but an increasing convergence is re¬ 
quired if combination is to be maintained. Notice that the 
binocular image seems to grow smaller. Move the arms in 
again, towards you. Convergence is lessened, until (when the 
arms are in the same straight line) the lines of regard are 
parallel. There is still no change in the size of the retinal 
images. Notice, however, that the binocular image seems to 
grow larger. 
Set the instrument again for easy combination. Move the 
slides steadily in towards the mirrors. Convergence remains 
constant ; the size of the retinal images is increased. Notice 
that the binocular image seems to have come nearer. Moye the 
slides outwards. Convergence is still constant ; the size of the 
retinal images is decreased. Notice that the binocular image 
seems to have travelled farther away. 
These two experiments are evidently of high, theoretical im¬ 
portance. In the former, we have constancy of retinal image, 
constancy of accommodation, change of convergence. The ap¬ 
parent distance of the binocular image remains constant for 
ordinary observation, though careful examination may show that 
it has changed. At any rate, the principal and obvious result is 
that the binocular image varies in magnitude. In tbe latter 
experiment, we have constancy of convergence, change of retinal 
image, change of accommodation. The apparent size of the 
binocular image remains constant for ordinary observation, 
though it is not difficult to perceive the changes in size as such. 
The principal and obvious result, however, is that the binocular 
image varies in distance. What, then, are the criteria that make
        

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