Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. I: Qualitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Titchener, Edward B.
§ 46. Summary of Preliminaries 255 
which form an exception to it, appear to be carried out in the 
interests of binocular vision ” (Foster). Work out the cases in 
which torsion occurs, and test this statement. 
(22) Make three pin-holes .-. in a card, within a space smaller 
than the extent of the pupil. Bring the card close up to the 
pupil. Some 2 or 3 cm. before it hold another card, pierced 
with a single pin-hole. The triangle appears as v. 
Hold the second card some 3 or 4 cm. before the pupil. 
Bring up the head of a pin, close to the pupil. You see a large, 
shadowy inverted pin in the circle of light. 
Explain these two results. 
(23) Seat yourself at about 50 cm. distance from a window 
commanding a wide prospect. Secure the head in a head-rest. 
Close the right eye. Select with the left eye some prominent 
object in the field (a tree, e.g.), lying a little to your right. 
Make an ink-mark on the window pane, covering the centre of 
the tree as seen by the left eye. Now close the left and open 
the right eye. Notice what object in the field (a chimney, e.g.) 
is partially covered by the ink-mark. Finally, open both eyes, 
and fixate the ink-mark. Directly behind it, and partly covered 
by it, you see both tree and chimney; in other words, mark, 
tree and chimney lie in the same direction. — Explain this 
result. See Hering, Hermann’s Hdbch., iii., 1, 386 ff. ; Höfler, 
Psychologie, 291 ff. 
(24) Define: circles of direction (right circles), occipital point, 
atropic line. — Sanford, 424 ; Helmholtz, 651, 678 ; Hering, Bin. 
Sehen, 73 ; Hermann’s Hdbch., 490 ff. 
We have now, at least in essentials, fulfilled Brewster’s 
requirements of those who enter upon the study of stereoscopic 
vision. And the Instructor, so far from extending the exercises 
to greater length (p. 232), may very well object that work of this 
sort is physiological, or at best psychophysical ; not psychologi¬ 
cal at all. Could we not get on, in psychology, without it ? Do 
we ever really make use of this cumbrous terminology ? Is it 
worth while to take the student back to the times when contro¬ 
versy raged about the horopter and the projection theory and 
the doctrine of identity ?


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