Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. I: Qualitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Titchener, Edward B.
Attention and Action 
Ann. de Chimie et de Physique, 3me sér., xiv., 1845, 129; 
Fechner, Helmholtz, Wundt, as quoted ; V. Urbantschitsch, 
Centralblatt f. d. medic. Wiss., 1875, 626; Pflüger’s Arch., xxiv., 
1881, 574; xxvii., 1882, 440; N. Lange, Philos. Studien, iv., 
1888, 390; H. Münsterberg, Beiträge z. exp. Psychologie, ii., 
1889, 69; H. Eckener, Philos. Studien, viii., 1893,343; E. Pace, 
ibid., 388 ; K. Marbe, ibid., 615 ; A. Lehmann, ibid., ix., 1894, 66; 
A. Pilzecker, op. cit., 55 ff. W. Heinrich has recently asserted 
that pure tones do not fluctuate : see H. O. Cook, Amer. Journ. 
of Psych., xi., 1899, 119, 436. 
(13) This question must be answered from the literature. It 
falls into two part questions : (a) Is the seat of the fluctuations 
central or peripheral ? and (b) : In the former event, are the 
fluctuations attributable to the mechanism of attention or to 
some other central mechanism ? Münsterberg and Heinrich 
declare for a peripheral seat, and so close the second question. 
Marbe and Lehmann declare for the centre, but not overtly for 
the attention. Pace, and still more forcibly Eckener, refer the 
phenomena to the attention. 
See W. Heinrich, Die moderne physiologische Psychologie in Deutschland, 
2d ed., Zurich, 1899. 
Experiment (4). Sixth Law. — The experiment upon the 
range of attention is best performed with visual stimuli, “be¬ 
cause visual impressions can most easily be selected with a view 
to their apprehension as independent ideas ” (Wundt, Human 
and Animal Psych., 241 ; Phys. Psych., ii., 287). Two methods 
have been employed for the determination. The first is that of 
instantaneous illumination (Dove, Zöllner, Helmholtz); an elec¬ 
tric spark is flashed before the object-card, in a dark room, and 
O is required to describe what he has seen (Helmholtz, Phys. 
Optik, 710). This method has fallen into disuse. The second 
method, that of the tachistoscope, is better adapted to general 
laboratory purposes. The tachistoscope consists, in principle, 
of a falling screen or shutter which, in dropping or opening, 
exposes the object-card for a brief and accurately variable time. 
The name ‘tachistoscope’ was suggested by A. W. Volkmann (Sitzungs- 
ber. d. kgl. sächs. Ges. d. Wiss., 1859, 90). One of the best known demon-


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