Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. I: Qualitative Experiments, part 2: Instructor's Manual
Titchener, Edward B.
The Affective Qualities 
arm is giving clear and massive sensations of pressure and 
temperature. On the other hand, agreeable and disagreeable 
smells are easily found and easily presented : O must, of course, 
be cautioned to take them passively, and not consciously to 
change his type of breathing while they are under his nostrils. 
Sound stimuli — chords and discords on forks or piano, musical 
phrases, harsh noises — are still cleaner, but less strongly 
However, the stimuli must be chosen to suit the subject ; 
and any stimulus should be unhesitatingly taken which promises 
to bring out a well-marked reaction. It may be necessary to 
provide a second E, to give the affective stimulus, while the 
original E attends to the drum. 
The kymograph is one of the corner-stones of laboratory 
equipment. We may therefore describe its use in some detail. 
The Kymograph and Its Use.—The recording apparatus 
and accessories, required for this and similar experiments, 
are as follows. 
(1) Clockwork kymograph, with two drums. 
(2) Supply of kymograph paper. 
(3) Stand to take revolving drum during smoking. 
(4) Lamp for smoking. 
(5) Stand to take spare drum. 
(6) Sharp scalpel. 
(7) Varnish, varnishing tray, hangers. 
(8) Marey tambour and writing point. 
(9) Tubing and air-cock. 
(10) Time-marker. 
(11) Standards, with right-angle clamps and spare arms. 
(1) The kymograph (Gk. KVfia, wave, and 7pdcpeiv, to write) is 
so called because it was first employed for the recording of 
curves of blood pressure. It is, however, well adapted to record 
any process whose course is a function of time elapsed. It con¬ 
sists, in essentials, of a hollow brass cylinder, the drum, which 
is rotated at a constant rate by means of a clockwork (water 
motor, weight, electric motor, etc.). The rate of rotation may 
be varied, within fairly wide limits, by change of governor, or 
some similar device.


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