Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice, Vol. I: Qualitative Experiments, Part 1: Student's Manual
Titchener, Edward B.
The Affective Qualities 
O being in position, E lays the smoked paper on the glass. 
O closes his eyes, and, as far as possible, ‘thinks of nothing.’ 
That is, he lets his mind wander indifferently over indifferent 
topics, or lapses into a sleepy reverie. E lowers the stylus 
between its guides, and (when 0 is thoroughly settled) lets it 
slip down to touch the paper. The recording of the normal 
tremor may occupy 15 to 6ö sec. ; the time varies with the 
duration of O's passive condition. 
At the end of the 60 sec., or sooner if 0 has shown signs of 
distraction, E lifts the stylus from the paper, and O takes his 
arm from the sling. O declares, introspectively, whether the 
tracing is to be considered as a normal, or, if not, at what point 
(approximately) the disturbance which vitiated it began. E 
numbers the tracing, upon the paper ; indicates by an arrow the 
direction (if there is any constant direction) which it followed ; 
and readjusts the paper for a second experiment. 
Six careful trials of this kind should be sufficient to establish 
the norm. 
(2) The Involuntary Movement as modified by Pleasant and 
Unpleasant Stimulation. — All preliminary arrangements for 
experimentation are made as before. E adjusts the clamp, so 
that, when O's head is in an unconstrained and natural position, 
the dish carried by it shall lie just beneath his nostrils. O 
closes his eyes, and the record of a normal tremor is begun. 
After 10 or 15 sec., however, E slips a dishful of odorous sub¬ 
stance or liquid (pleasant or unpleasant, as the case may be) 
under O's nose. 0 is allowed to take six inspirations of the 
odour, the stylus meanwhile registering his arm movement. 
At the close of the sixth expiration, E lifts the stylus from 
the paper, and the experiment is finished. O must on no 
account look at his tracing. E numbers the record, and indi¬ 
cates the direction (if there is a constant direction) of the 
The success of the experiment depends upon the affective 
value of the stimulus employed. If O declares that the odour 
was simply “ a trifle unpleasant ; but not bad,” or “ pretty good ; 
but I didn’t care much about it,” we shall not obtain the affec¬ 
tive reaction which we are seeking. Each stimulus must be


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