Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Psychology: The Science of Human Behaviour
Givler, Robert Ch.
blue, and violet. The rods are the receptors for 
white, gray, and black. But, while there are six 
colors in the rainbow, there are in psychology only 
four pure, or primary colors, red, yellow, green, and 
blue. Orange is for the psychologist a mixture of 
red and yellow, and violet is a mixture of red and 
blue. All other color effects whatever are produced 
either by mixing the primary colors together, or by 
mixing primary colors with some of the white-gray- 
black series. Yellow and green produce canary yel¬ 
low, green and blue produce robin's egg blue, and 
red and black produce brown, and so on through a 
myriad combinations. 
In any color effect we recognize these three fac¬ 
tors : (1) hue, the definite color quality, such as 
red, blue, or violet ; (2) tint or brightness, as is illus¬ 
trated by the terms light blue and dark green ; and 
(3) saturation, that is, the depth or weakness of the 
definite color. Navy blue is more saturated than is 
sky blue, and hunter’s green more saturated than 
lemon yellow. On the physical side hue is deter¬ 
mined by the length of the ether waves exciting the 
retina. Proceeding through the spectrum from red 
to violet, the wave lengths grow shorter and shorter. 
Likewise, tint is dependent upon the amplitude of 
the ether wave, and saturation is dependent upon the 
form of the wave. The simplest form goes with the 
greatest saturation. Since every color is more or 
less bright, the cones are never stimulated without 
the rods being also stimulated at the same time. 
The retina exhibits the peculiar property of con¬ 
tinuing the effect of the stimulation after the stimu¬ 
lus has ceased to act upon it. In physics this would 
be called momentum. The effect thus produced by 
the retina is termed an after-image, of which in


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