Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
Psychology: The Science of Human Behaviour
Person:
Givler, Robert Ch.
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit11929/180/
PSYCHOLOGY 
170 
fused to give the final meaning to the word “up,” 
while the fusion of sensations from the muscles 
which antagonize these movements come eventually 
to mean “down.” Other qualities of eye and eyelid 
movement come to mean “right” and “left,” “diag¬ 
onally,” “across,” “under,” “on top of,” and so on 
throughout all the list of terms which mean space. 
The eye, however, does not get educated by itself. 
From early infancy we touch and fumble what we 
see, we move it, displace it, and roll it about with 
our hands, thereby associating movement sensation 
from the hand and arm with sensations from the 
eyes. Besides, one of our earliest actions is to turn 
the head in all directions to bring light to bear upon 
the fovea (see Chapter III), and so there are finally 
established kinæsthetic sensations from all the mova¬ 
ble parts of our bodies. In the adult it is the sum 
of these motor responses which meaning to the 
various words that imply direction and position in 
space. But these motor adjustments become so fine 
and so thoroughly second nature to us that it takes 
the most careful self-observation to bring them to 
our notice. 
The sum of all'this is that we perceive movement 
by moving ourselves, or by means of the strain sensa¬ 
tions of muscles about to be moved,, even though such 
movements and strains may not be noticed by us. 
A very interesting experiment has been devised to 
demonstrate the truth of this principle. If the arm 
is laid comfortably on a board that is hung from the 
ceiling by springs so supple that the slightest pres¬ 
sure will cause the board to be depressed, and if 
a fine wire lever attached to the end of the board is 
so pivoted as to make broad excursions at the free 
end upon every movement of the board, up or down
        

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