Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Psychology: The Science of Human Behaviour
Givler, Robert Ch.
A typical sentiment possesses the following fea¬ 
ture: (1) It is a subconscious or unconscious tend¬ 
ency to action; (2) which, when given full rein, is 
accompanied by some emotion, and (3) may, under 
different circumstances, arouse different or even 
opposite emotions. Let us analyze, for example, the 
sentiment called 'patriotism. This particular senti¬ 
ment is a subconscious or unconscious tendency to 
act in behalf of one’s country. During times of peace 
it is dormant, except perhaps on holidays, when flags 
and oratory bring it to the surface of our minds. On 
such occasions, as well as during the threat or prose¬ 
cution of war, the sentiment becomes vigorously 
emotionalized. Every good patriot is then called 
upon not only to love his country, but to hate its 
enemies. At this stage the sentiment has turned into 
highly emotionalized action, and all the forces of 
body and mind are mobilized in its behalf. 
Though all sentiments are normally subconscious 
or unconscious tendencies, they must not be under¬ 
stood on that account to be instinctive. Every senti¬ 
ment, whether it be patriotism, loyalty of one’s em¬ 
ployer, or fidelity to an ideal, is the result of educa¬ 
tion, even though such education be unconscious. 
For since, as we have said before, every stimulus 
educates, so wre may say now that every emotional¬ 
ized reaction we make helps to build up sentiments 
in our subconscious mind. Sentiments are complex. 
In every one of them we may detect several simple 
emotions. Patriotism, for example, involves among 
other things not only a love for one’s country but at 
times a hatred of its enemies. All other sentiments 
are similarly compounded, some of two, others 
of three, and still others of more than three simple 


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