Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Psychology: The Science of Human Behaviour
Givler, Robert Ch.
HENEVER we see, hear, taste, smell, or have 
V ¥ any other sensation, a nervous impulse actuates 
some muscle or gland, thus transforming electrical 
energy into either chemical energy or the energy of 
heat and motion. This is a universal law of men¬ 
tal activity which has already been illustrated in sev¬ 
eral cases. The term “motor response” has been 
used to refer to the final stage of nervous action, 
namely, the effect of the motor nerve upon a gland 
or a muscle. In this chapter we are to consider a 
very important kind of sensations, those caused by 
the movement of the muscles themselves. 
A distinction is to be made, however, between 
motor response in general and those particular move¬ 
ments of which we become conscious. For example, 
while during hunger the stomach is undergoing vio¬ 
lent contractions, and although these contractions 
are muscular movements, yet the only thing we feel 
is hunger. We cannot feel the separate contractions 
of the stomach, nor are we aware of their velocity 
and extent—all we are conscious of are the hunger 
pangs. Again, in the response to cold (goose flesh), 
the separate contractions of the tiny pili erectores 
muscles are not felt as such—ail we get is the shiver 
of cold. These two cases are excellent examples of the 
transformation of the common energies of nature into 


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