Volltext: A history of caricature and grotesque in literature and art

and Art. 
allbciated together in the popular outcry, and as the name of the third 
fell into contempt and oblivion, the doctor's place in this affociation was 
taken by a new caufe of alarm, the Pretender, the child whom we have 
jnft feen fo joyouily braudifhing his windmill. It is evident, however, 
that this caricature greatly exafperated Sacheverell and the party which 
fupported him. 
It will have been noticed that the writerjult quoted, in ufing the term 
"print," ignores altogether that of caricature, which, however, was about 
this time beginning to come into ufe, although it is not found in the 
dictionaries, I believe, until the appearance of that of Dr. Johnfon, in 
I755. Caricature is, of courfe, an Italian word, derived from the verb 
ca-ricare, to charge or load; and therefore, it means a picture which is 
charged, or exaggerated (the old French dictionaries fay, " c'r_e]Z la meme 
chqfe qua charge en peinture  The word appears not to have come into 
ufe in Italy until the latter half of the feventeenth century, and the 
earlielt inftance I know of its employment by an Englilh writer is that 
quoted by Johnfon from the " Chriftian Morals" of Sir Thomas Brown, 
who died in 1682, but it was one of his lateft writings, and was not 
printed till long after his death  Expofe not thyfelf by four-footed 
manners unto monftrous draughts (Le. drawings) and caricatura reprefen- 
tations." This very quaint writer, who had pa1Ted Ibme time in Italy, 
evidently ufes it as an exotic word. We find it next employed by the 
writer of the Ellay No. 537, of the "Spectator," who, fpeaking of the 
way in which different people were led by feelings of jealoufy and preju- 
dice to detract from the characters of others, goes on to fay, " From all 
thefe hands We have fuch draughts of mankind as are reprefented in thofe 
burlefque pictures which the Italians call caricaturas, where the art 
confilts in preferving, amidlt diftorted proportions and aggravated features, 
fome diftinguifhing likenefs of the perfon, but in fuch a manner as to 
transform the molt agreeable beauty into the moft odious monfrer." The 
word was not fully ettablithed in our language in its Englilh form of 
caricature until late in the laft century. 
The fubject of agitation which produced a greater number of carica- 
tures than any previous event was the wild financial fcheme introduced 



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