Volltext: A history of caricature and grotesque in literature and art

qf Caricature 
Marguerite held her court in true princely manner in the catlle of 
Pau or at Nerac, and the loved to furround herfelf with a circle of men 
remarkable for their character and talents, and ladies dittinguifhed by 
beauty and accomplilhments, which made it rival in brilliance even that 
of her brother Francois. She placed nearett to her perfon, under the 
character of her valets-ale-chambre, the principal poets and L-eaux-qfpo-its 
of her time, fuch as Clement Marot, Bonaventure des Periers, Claude 
Gruget, Antoine du Moulin, and Jean de la Haye, and admitted them to 
fuch a tender familiarity of intercourfe, as to excite the jealoufy of the 
king her hufband, from whofe ill-treatment the was only protected by 
her brother's interference. The poets called her chamber a "veritable 
Parnailus." Hers was certainly a great mind, greedy of knowledge, 
diflatisfied with what was, and eager for novelties, and therefore the 
encouraged all who fought for them. It was in this fpirit, combined 
with her earnelt love for letters, that the threw her protection over both 
the fceptics and the religious reformers. At the beginning of the 
perfecutions, as early as I 523, fhe openly declared herfelf the advocate of 
the Protettants. When Clement Marot was arretted by order of the 
Sorbonne and the Inquifitor on the charge of having eaten bacon in 
Lent, Marguerite caufed him to be liberated from prifon, in denance of 
his perfecutors. Some of the pureii; and ablett of the early French 
reformers, fuch as Roufiel and Le Fevre d'Etaples, and Calvin himfelf, 
found a fafe afylum from danger in her dominions. As might be 
fuppofed, the bigoted party were bitterly incenfed againtt the queen of 
Navarre, and were not backward in taking advantage of an opportunity 
for ihowing it. A moral treatife, entitled " Le Miroir de l'Ame 
Pechereife," of which Marguerite was the author, was condemned by 
the Sorbonne in x533, but the king compelled the univerflty, in the 
perfon of its rector, Nicolas Cop, to difavow publicly the cenfure. This 
was followed by a {till greater a6t of infolence, for, at the inltigation of 
fome of the more bigoted papitts, the fcholars of the college of Navarre, 
in concert with their regents, performed a farce in which Marguerite was 
transformed into a fury of hell. Frangois 1., greatly indignant, fent his 
archers to arreft the offenders, who further provoked his anger by 


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