Volltext: A history of caricature and grotesque in literature and art

qf Caricature 
richer clergy, at which Latin feems to have been the language in ordinary 
ufe. In all probability it was from this circumftance (in allufion to the 
Latin word gula, as intimating their love of the table) that thefe merry 
fcholars, who difplayed in Latin fome of the accomplifhments which the 
jougleurs profeffed in the vulgar tongue, took or received the name of 
goliards (in the Latin of that time, goliardi, or goliarderfcs)."i The 
name at leatt appears to have been adopted towards the end of the 
twelfth century. In the year 1229, during the minority of Louis IX., 
and while the government of France was in the hands of the queen- 
mother, troubles arofe in the univerfity of Paris through the intrigues of 
the papal legate, and the turbulence of the fcholars led to their difperfion 
and to the temporary clofing of the fchools; and the contemporary 
hittorian, Matthew Paris, tells us how "fome of the fervants of the 
departing fcholars, or thofe whom We ufed to call goliardenfes," com- 
pofed an indecent epigram on the rumoured familiarities between the 
legate and the queen. But this is not the iirit mention of the goliards, 
for a {latute of the council of Treves, in 1227, forbade "all prieits to 
permit truants, or other wandering fcholars, or goliards, to ting verfes or 
Sanrfius and Angelus Dei in the fervice of the mafs."1' This probably 
refers to parodies on the religious fervice, fuch as thofe of which I {hall 
foon have to fpeak. From this time the goliards are frequently mentioned. 
In ecclefiaftical Itatutes publifhed in the year 1289, it is ordered that the 
clerks or clergy (clerici, that is, men who had their education in the 
univerfity) {hould not be jougleurs, goliards, or buifoons {'1 and the fame 
(tatute proclaims a heavy penalty againft thofe clerici "who perlift in the 
4' In the mediaeval Latin, the word goliardia was introduced to express the pro- 
fession of the goliard, and the verb galiardizare, to signify the practice of it. 
-I1 " Item, praecipimus ut omnes sacerdotes non permittant trutannos er alios vagos 
scholares, aut goliardos, cantare versus super Sanths et Angela: Dei in missis," etc. 
 Trevin, an 1227, ap. Marten. et Durand. Ampliss. Col1., vii. col. 117. 
I " Item, praecipimus quod clerici non sint joculatores, goliardi, seu bufones."-- 
Star. Synod. Caduacensis, Ruthenensis, et Tutelensis Eccles. ap. Martene, Thes. 
Anecd., iv. col. 77-7- 


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