Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
A history of caricature and grotesque in literature and art
Person:
Wright, Thomas Fairholt, Frederick William
Persistente ID:
urn:nbn:de:gbv:wim2-g-1429385
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/resolver?urn=urn:nbn:de:gbv:wim2-g-1431306
Vi 
136  
of Caricature and 
Grotefgue 
popularly called a devil's dozen, and was believed to be unlucky-fo, 
when the devil's name was abandoned, perhaps for the fake of euphony, 
the name fubftituted for it was that of the baker, and the number 
thirteen was called "a baker's dozen." The makers of nearly all forts 
of provitions for fale were, in the middle ages, tainted with the fame 
vice, and there was nothing from which fociety in general, efpecially in 
the towns where few made bread for themfelves, fut-fered fo much. 
This evil is alluded to more than once in that curious educational treatife, 
the "Dictionarius" of John de Garlande, printed in my "Volume of 
Vocabularies." This writer, who wrote in the earlier half of the thirteenth 
century, inlinuates that the makers of pies (pajiillarii), an article of food 
which was greatly in repute during the middle ages, often made ufe of 
bad eggs. The cooks, he fays further, fold, efpecially in Paris to the 
fcholars of the univeriity, cooked meats, faufages, and fuch things, 
which were not fit to eat; while the butchers furniihed the meat of 
animals which had died of difeafe. Even the fpices and drugs fold by 
the apothecaries, or dpiciers, were not, he fays, to be trufled. John de 
Garlande had evidently an inclination to fatire, and he gives way to it 
not unfrequently in the little book of which I am fpeaking. He fays 
that the glovers of Paris cheated the fcholars of the univertity, by felling 
them gloves made of bad materials; that the women who gained their 
living by winding thread (deuacuatrices, in the Latin of the time), not only 
emptied the fcl1olars' purfes, but walled their bodies alfo (it is intended as 
a pun upon the "Latin word); and the huckiiers fold them unripe fruit 
for ripe. The drapers, he fays, cheated people not only by felling bad 
materials, but by meafuring them with falle meafures; while the hawkers, 
who went about from houfe to houfe, robbed as well as cheated. 
M. Jubinal has publifhed in his curious volume entitled "Jonglenrs 
et Trouveres," a rather jocular poem on the bakers, written in French of, 
perhaps, the thirteenth century, in which their art is lauded as much 
better and more ufeful than that of the goldfmith's. The rnillers' 
depredations on the corn fent to be ground at the mill, are laid to the 
charge of the rats, which attack it by night, and the hens, which find 
their way to it by day; and he explains the diminution the bakings 
experienced
        

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