Volltext: A history of caricature and grotesque in literature and art

af Caricature 
of the gleeman, and that the latter was quite identical with his Roman 
type. It was the Roman mimus introduced into Saxon England. We 
have no traces of the exittence of fuch a clafs of performers among the 
Teutonic race before they became acquainted with the civilifation of 
imperial Rome. We know from drawings in contemporary illuminated 
manufcripts that the performances of the gleeman did include mufic, 
finging, and dancing, and alfo the tricks of mountebanks and jugglers, 
fuch as throwing up and catching knives and balls, and performing with 
tamed bears, kc." 
But even among the peoples who preferved the Latin language, 
the word mimus was gradually exchanged for others employed to iignify 
the fame thing. The word jocus had been ufed in the fignification 
of a jett, playfulnefs, jocari fignified to jeit, and joculator was a word 
for a jeiter; but, in the debafement of the language, jocus was taken in 
the fignification of everything which created mirth. It became, in 
the courfe of time the French word jeu, and the Italian giuco, or 
giuoco. People introduced a form of the verb, jocare, which became the 
French juer, to play or perform.  Joculator was then ufed in the 
fenfe of mimus. In French the word became jogleor, or jougleor, and 
in its later form jougleur. I may remark that, in rnediaeval manu- 
fcripts, it is almotl impofiible to diftinguifh between the u and the n, and 
that modern writers have mifread this lailz word as jongleur, and thus 
introduced into the language a word which never exifted, and which 
ought to be abandoned. In old Engliih, as we fee in Chaucer, the ufua] 
form was jogelere. The rnediaeval joculator, or jougleur, embraced all 
the attributes of the Roman 'mimus,1" and perhaps more. In the firit 
4' See examples of these Illuminations in my "History of Domestic Manners 
and Sentiments," pp. 34, 35, 37, 65.  
1- People in the middle ages were so fully conscious of the identity of the 
mediaeval jouglcur with the Roman mimus, that the Latin writers often use mimu: 
to signify a jougleur, and the one is interpreted by the others in the vocabularies. 
Thus, in Latin-English vocabularies of the fifteenth century, we h:we-- 
 E Anglia jogulour.


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