Volltext: A history of caricature and grotesque in literature and art

and Art. 
when, to 
Reynard's mediaeval celebrity dates certainly from a rather early period. 
Montflaucon has given an alphabet of ornamental initial letters; formed 
chiefly of figures of men and animals, from a manufcript which he 
afcribes to the ninth century, among which is the one  M  
copied in our cut No. 51, reprefenting a fox walking 4 by  
upon his hind legs, and carrying two fmall cocks,   
fufpended at the ends of a crofs Hath It is hardly 1. 
neceffary to fay that this group forms the letter T.   
Long before this, the Frankifh hiftorian Fredegarius, , 
who wrote about the middle of the feventh century,  
introduces a fable in which the fox figures at the court )9-LA 
of the lion. The lame fable is repeated by a monkifh Ef  
writer of Bavaria, named Fromond, who flourifhed in N" Jig: Fa" 
the tenth century, and by another named Aimoinus, 
who lived about the year 1,000. At length, in the twelfth century, 
Guibert de Nogent, who died about the year 1 I24, and who has left us 
his autobiography (de Vita fuzz), relates an anecdote in that work, in 
explanation "of which he tells us that the wolf was then popularly 
defignated by the name of lfengrin; and in the fables of Odo, as we 
have already feen, this name is commonly given to the wolf, Reynard to 
the fox, Teburg to the cat, and fo on with the others. This only {hows 
that in the fables of the twelfth century the various animals were known 
by thefe names, but it does not prove that what we know as the romance 
of Reynard exifted. Jacob Grimm argued from the derivation and forms 
of thefe names, that the fables themfelves, and the romance, originated 
with the Teutonic peoples, and were indigenous to them ; but his reafons 
appear to me to be more fpecious than conclufive, and I certainly lean to 
the opinion of my friend Paulin Paris, that the romance of Reynard was 
native of F rancefi and that it was partly founded upon old Latin legends, 
it see the dissertation by M. Paulin Paris, published in his nice popular modern 
abridgment oi the Ft'c1'1Cl'l romance, published in I361, under the title " Les Aven-


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