Volltext: Geschichte der Civilisation in England (Bd. 2)

Zustand von 
Späterhin fand ohne Zweifel eine bedeutende Verbesserung 
statt; sie kam aber sehr langsam, und selbst am Ende des 
16. Jahrhunderts war ein ordentlich gelerntes Handwerk kaum 
bekannt und ehrliches Gewerbe in allgemeiner Verachtungßl) 
Daher ist es nicht überraschend, dass die Bürger, arm, elend und 
unwissend wie sie waren, häufig den Schutz irgend eines mäch- 
tigen Lords erkauften und ihm das Wenige von Unabhängigkeit, 
das sie noch besassen, abtratenßs) Wenige Städte Schottlands 
for temporary aecommodation. Their towns eonsisted chieflygf wooden cottages."    
"Even as late as 1600, the houses of Edinburgh were chieüy built of wood." Okul- 
mers' Oaledonia, I, 802. Ein andrer Bericht vom Jahre 1670 sagt: „The houses of 
the eommonalty are very mean, mud-wall and thatch, the best; but the poorer sort 
live in such miserable huts as never eye beheld."     „In some parts, where turf 
is plentifnl, they bnild up Iittle cabbins thereof, with arched. roofs of turf , without a 
stick of timber in.it; when the house is dry enough to burn, it serves them for fuel, 
and they remove to änother." Harleizm Miscellany, VI, 139, 41:0, 1810. 
67) „Onr manufactures were carried on by the meanest of the people, who had 
small stocks, and were of no repntation. These were, for the most part, workmen 
for home-consumpt, such as masons, house-carpenters, armourers, blaeksmiths, taylors, 
shoemakers, and the like. Our weavers were few in number, und in the greatest 
conjempt, as their employments were more sedentary, and themselves reckoned less iit 
for war, in which all were obliged to serve, when the exigencies of the country de- 
manded their attendance." The Inlemst of Scotland considered, Edinburgh 1733, p. 82. 
Pinkerton (Hislory of Scotland, II, 392), mit Bezug auf die Sloanesehen Manuscripte, 
sagt: „The author of an interesting memoir coneerning the state of Seotland about 
1590, observes, that the hnsbandmen were a kind of slaves, only holding their lands 
from year to year; that the nobility being 1:00 numerous for the extent of the country, 
there arose too great an inequality of rank and revenue; und there was no middle 
station between a. proud landholder and those who, having no property 1:0 lose, were 
reudy for any tumult. A rieh yeomanry, numerous merehants and tradesmen of pro- 
perty, and all the denominations of the mickile dass, so important in a. üourishing 
society, were long to be coniined to England." 13 Jahre später heisst es, die Schot- 
tischen Fabriken „were conflned to a few of the coarsest natura, without whieh the 
poorest nations are unable to subsist." Lainjs History of Scotland, III, 7, unter dem 
Jahre 1603. 
63) So z. B. "the towßn of Dunbar naturally grew up under the shelter of the 
ßagtle Qf the Same name."     "Dnnbar became the town, in demesn, of the suc. 
cessive Earls of Dunbar and March, partaking of their influences, whether unfortunate 
or happy." 0kalmers' Oaledonia, II, 416. „But when the regal government became 
M? any time feeble, these towns, unequal '00 1116i? own protection, placed themselves 
under the shelter of the most powerful lord in their neighbourhogd, Thus, the town 
of Elgyn found it neoessary, a1: vßrious periods between the years 1389 und 1452, to . 
aecept of many carters of protection, and discharges of taxes, from the Earls of 
Moray, who held it in some species of vassalage." Sinalairis Scotland, V, 3. Vergl.


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